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Flashcards in Pig Systemic Diseases Deck (59):
1

Name 6 common systemic pig diseases.

Swine Erysipelas
Streptococcus suis infection
Porcine Circo Virus 2 (PCV2 AD)
Greasy Pig (staph hyicus)
Mycotoxicosis
Vitamin E deficiency

2

What is the capital of Zanzibar?

Zanzibar City

3

What is Swine Erysipelas caused by?

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

4

What type of bacteria, how many serotypes (which one has a commercial vaccine), and how many days does it survive in slurry? --for Erysipelas

Gram positive rod
28 serotypes, type 2 has commercial vaccine
Survives 7 days in slurry spread on soil

5

What is public health concern for swine erysipelas?

Zoonotic!

6

Where in the body is E. rhusiopathiae carried? shed?

Carried on tonsils, shed in feces & urine of clinical cases

7

Pathogenesis of Swine erysipelas?

Invades through GI, skin, or tonsils - non-immune animals develop bacteremia and septicemia (which may be fatal).
Infected microthrombi in end arteries
Localized disease in skin, joints, heart valves
Solid immunity develops to each serotype

8

CS for Swine erysipelas? (peracute vs. acute vs. chronic)

Peracute = pyrexia (to 42.5C), scarlet flushed skin, death in finishers (from 50-60kg)

Acute = Anorexia, pyrexia (to 42.4C), flushing of skin, cyanosis of ears, reluctance to move, +/-death, or after 24-48 hours - development of DIAMOND SHAPED SKIN LESIONS

Chronic = Loss of tail and ears, necrosis of skin lesions, valvular endocarditis, signs of cardiac failure, arthritis

9

Which systemic disease gives you vegetative endocarditis?

Swine erysipelas

[vegetative endocarditis = endocarditis associated w/ presence of fibrinous clots forming on ulcerated surfaces of vessels]

10

How is Swine Erysipelas spread?

Shed in urine & feces of clinical cases
Transmitted by contact or through soil
Wallowing/high humidity may predispose
Other species (birds/mammals) may be reservoirs

11

Dx of Swine Erysipelas?

-CS (pyrexia, diamond lesions)
-Chronic evidence of ear necrosis, arthritis, and vegetative endocarditis
-Septicemic disease w/ petechiated kidneys, proliferative synovitis and arthritis
-Isolation of E. rhusiopathiae

12

How did Harry Potter get down the hill?

Walking
...J.K. Rowling

13

Tx and Control of Swine Erysipelas?

Tx = parenteral penicillin for 3 days
Control = Vx using Procilis Ery
(killed vaccine, serotype 2)
[vx primary course is 2 doses, 4 weeks apart, the booster every 6 mos]
Hygiene

14

What 4 syndromes does streptococcus suis infection cause?

Septicemia
Arthritis (joint ill)
Meningitis
Pneumonia and bronchopnuemonia (occasionally)

15

What ages (groups) of pigs are prone to getting Strep suis infections?

Suckling pigs, Weaned pigs, +/- Finishers

Rare in adults

16

What are the three main serotypes of Strep suis that cause meningitis, and what age group?

Type 1 = suckling piglets
Type 2 = meningitis in weaners
Type 14 = arthritis in weaners

17

When do piglets tend to get streptococcal suis infections? And what 4 syndromes can they cause in piglets?

7-14 days of age
Septicemia (and death), meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis (joint ill)

18

What serotype of strep suis is common in piglets?

Serotype 1

19

CS of strep suis infection in piglets (not weaned)?

Vs.

CS of this infection in weaned pigs?

Both can see = sudden death,

Piglets = 2/3 litter affected, Cease to thrive, Enlarged hot/swollen/painful joints, Nervous signs

Weaned pigs = Mortality is 1-50%, Fever, glassy stare, unsteady gait, nervous signs (incoordination/ataxia/paralysis/paddling/head tilt), polyarthritis, +/- bronchopneumonia (w/ increased RR)

20

PM findings for strep suis infection in non-weaned piglets?

Few lesions in septicemic phase
Purulent meningitis
Joints swollen by mucopurulent synovial fluid
Endocarditis

21

DX of strep suis in piglets?

CS (fluctuating arthritis and meningitis in pigs 7-14d)
confirm by bacteriology or PCR

22

Tx and control of strep suis infection in piglets?

Tx = individual animals w/ parenteral penicillin inj 3-5d, cover rest of litter w/ Amoxi

Control = all-in, all-out farrowing
Improve flooring where abrasions important
Stop teeth clipping

23

Strep suis infections in weaned pigs:
What is most common strain?
What does it usually occur (after what husbandry event?)

strain 2

occurs after mixing and moving

24

What is the pathogenesis of Strep suis meningitis, and what infection is this also associated with?

Path = present in tonsilar crypts, picked up by macrophages, septicemia (may kill pig), reaches brain in macrophage w/in few hours of entry, can multiply there and throughout the body

Associated w/ PRRS infection

25

PM findings for strep suis infection in weaned pigs?

Congested and reddened carcass
LN congestion
Fibrin in body cavities, focal fibrinous pleurisy, pneumonia in lungs
Enlarged spleen
Meninges congested / purulent meningitis
Cloudy CSF
Joints w/ mucopurulent fluid

26

How is Strep suis spread in weaned pigs?

Contact, aerosol, ingestion

fomites/clothing can transmit
Survives in dust, feces, rubber, plastic
Spread from herd to herd on carrier pigs, wild boar

More likely to occur after mixing, overcrowding, or concurrent disease

Transmitted from sow to litter, survives on tonsils for long periods

27

Dx strep suis infection in weaned pigs?

CS - head tilt, meningitis, arthritis, fever in weaned pigs
Mortality, some sudden deaths
PM findings of septicemia, arthritis, and/or purulent meningitis
Histopath - Supprative leptomeningitis
Isolation of organism from infected tissues

28

Tx of Strep suis infection in weaned pigs?

Individuals = parenteral penicillin, amoxi, or cephalosporins where poor response
Support treated animals w/ fluids, warmth

Group = water medication of Amoxi or Trimethoprim sulphonamide

If paralysis persists, euthanize

29

Control of Strep suis infection in weaned pigs?

Medication during periods of risk
Vx of breeding stock or sucklers
Improve ventilation
Reduce overcrowding and mixing
All-in, all-out
Temperature control
Consider elimination techniques
Purchase negative breeding stock

30

What age group of pigs are infected w/ Porcine Circo Virus 2?

Weaners and growers

31

What public health concern with Strep suis infections?

Zoonotic - but only deaths in immunocompromised people

32

What 2 syndromes are associated with PCV2 infection?

PMWS and PDNS

(post-weaning multisystemic wasting disease, and Porcine dermatitis and nephritis syndrome)

33

What kind of virus is PCV2 AD, and what reading frame sequence creates protein responsible for Antibody, and is therefore used in vaccines?

SS DNA virus
ORF2

34

What is the route of infection for PCV2?

oronasal, but may also be transplacental and venereal

35

How is PCV2 spread?

Virus shed in nasal secretions & feces w/in 2 days of infection

36

CS of PMWS?

5-25 weeks old (peak mortality @ 9 weeks)
Sudden death
Chronic wasting (condition loss is quick)
Dull, unthrifty
Hairy
+/- pyrexia
Pallor, jaundice
Lymphadenopathy
Diarrhea or dyspnea
Less commonly: pregnancy failure, variable litter size, abortion, mummification, stillbirths

Virus causes immunosuppression, so clinical picture is affected by 2ndry disease

37

CS of PDNS?

11-14 weeks, high levels of PCV2 antibodies
Sudden onset, may be seen in a group also showing signs of PMWS

First signs =Red/purple patches over hind quarters and back (can coalesce, become necrotic, slough)

Swollen edematous hind limbs, Renal failure

[animals with severe swollen limbs, ulceration, renal failure should be euthanized]

38

PM findings of PCV2 infection?

Pallor or jaundice
Peripheral LN enlarged / pale, swollen LN (follicular B cells replaced by histiocytes & multinucleate giant cells, marked lymphopenia)
Wasting of muscle
Lobular mottling of lungs
Distension of cecum and reddening of colon
+/- gastric ulceration of esophagus

39

Dx of PCV2 infection?

CS of wasting or skin lesions of PDNS
Lymphadenopathy
Confirmation by histopath and virus in tissue
Serology not helpful

40

Tx and Control of PCV2 infection?

No tx for primary infection
2ndry infections should be controlled
If isolated case, remove from pen and supportive care
Madec's 20 point plan (which I am not going to write out because that's ridiculous)

Vaccinations:
Sow = Circovac, given pre-service & pre-farrow (repeat each parity)
Piglets = Circoflex, from 2 weeks of age (1 dose); PorcilisPCV2, from 3 weeks of age (1 dose)

41

What causes Greasy Pig Disease?

Staphylococcus hyicus

42

what is greasy pig disease?

acute dermatitis caused by bacteria
(characterized by excessive sebaceous secretion, w/o pruritis, leading to dehydration, growth depression, and death)

43

How are pigs infected w/ staphylococcus hyicus?

Gain entry via scratches, bites, or abrasions from rough concrete flooring or sawdust
Exfoliative toxin released

44

What does the toxin from staphylococcus hyicus do to pigs?

Causes shedding of epithelial cells, formation of vesicles and pustules
Skin becomes reddened and inflamed, and excess sebaceous secretion occurs

45

CS of Greasy pig?

7d-7weeks
-Pale, brown flecks on surface (esp. face and shoulders- where fight marks have occured)
-Patches extend further over the body & becomes covered in exudate, giving greasy texture and matted hair
-Untreated pigs die w/in 5-10d
-Stunted growth
-can cause ear necrosis @ tip or base of pinna

Older pigs = lesions are discrete focal lesions of 1-2cm and appear as greasy patches or areas of ulceration

46

PM findings of greasy pig?

Dehydrated carcass
Superficial LN enlargement
Histopath shows inflamed and hypertrophy of sebaceous glands
Rete pegs are prominent and microabscesses are seen in keratin layers
Bacteriology shows profuse culture of staph from the skin and LN

47

What can cause a Greasy Pig infection to persist in herd?

Unclean pens or mange/harvest mites are causing irritation

48

Dx of greasy pig?

CS are suggestive
Differentiate from parakeratosis on age, dermatosis vegetans (only landrace) and ringworm by location
PM and culture = confirm

49

Treatment of Greasy pig?

Prompt!
Parenteral amoxi, ampi, TS, cetiofur, or fluoroquin. (2-3days)
Electrolytes
Skin washing (Cetrimide)
Topical treatment w/ oil/dry cow tube combo
Medicate pigs in contact w/ penicillin in feed @ 10mg/kg

50

Control of Greasy pig?

Clip teeth of litters @ risk
Provide soft bedding
Spray "at risk" groups @ weaning w/ cetrimide solution
Wash sows into farrowing (not always practical)
Clean pens! (b/w batches!)
Autogenous vaccination in worst cases or hwere multiple resistance

51

What causes mycotoxicosis (in general)?

Mycotoxins from spoiled and damp feed (where fungi and molds thrive)

52

Name a few mycotoxins (there are 4 main ones)

Zearalenone, Ochratoxin A, Vomitoxin, Aflatoxin

53

What is the name for the common parasitic fungus from the ergot fungus group? and what are some examples of plants that it is found on?

Purpurea
Rye, wheat, barley, ryegrass

54

Just a heads up- there's a whole lot more information on Myocotoxicosis (those mycotoxins specifically), but I just couldn't be bothered to make flashcards on them.

Sorry.

55

How do you dx mycotoxicosis?

Testing blood or bile if available (bile more reliable due to persistence)
Testing of feed constituents or straw may be helpful, but distribution of mycotoxin is uneven

56

Treatment and Control of mycotoxicosis?

Tx - withdrawal of contaminated feed will reverse CS w/in 3-4 weeks
Bin hygiene is important

Control - Mycotoxin binders in feed, (no binders can do all of them, though), adsorbents may be inorganic such as clays/inactivated charcoals/silicates, or organics (glucan products), Denaturants may be enzymes that break down mycotoxin

57

CS of Vitamin E deficiency?

Sudden death (weaned rapidly growing pigs - mulberry heart disease)
Hepatosis dietetica
Steatisis
Infertility

58

PM findings for Vitamin E deficiency?

Pallor, excess pericardial fluid, liver rupture, heart muscle reddened and streaked, evidence of muscle fiber necrosis w/ fibrosis

59

Diagnosis of Vit E deficiency?

Low plasma (or liver) levels of Vit E
Sudden death
Mulberry Heart Disease (gross heart lesions)
Histopathology of muscle necrosis