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Flashcards in Pig Reproductive Diseases Deck (64):
1

When do pigs reach puberty? (females)

5-7 months
(85-90kg)

2

When should you aim to serve a gilt?

@ 2nd or 3rd estrus (@ 34 weeks)
-by age, not weight

3

When should gilts start to get boar contact?

160-170d

4

What kind of breeders are pigs?

polyestrus

5

How long is the pig estrus cycle?

20-22 days

6

What are some signs of estrus?

Edema and hyperemia of vulva
Restlessness & variable appetite
Mounting / being ridden
Grunting
Standing near boar
Standing heat reflex (will stand solidly if you push on back)

7

How long does estrus last in pigs?

36-72 hours

8

When is Fertility in boars?

fertile 7-9 months

9

What is target wean to service interval? when do you intervene?

5d, intervene @ 7d

10

How many litters/sow/year is the target?

2.4

11

What is lactation length? When are pigs weaned?

21-28d
weaned at 28d (4 weeks)

12

how often are boars put to work?

1 double service / week = capacity

13

Indoor mating vs. outdoor mating (problems w/ both)

Indoor = could be too dark, and boars may be housed directly opposite sows

Outdoor = worry about weather, (should have somewhere covered), don't have control (don't know who has been served properly)

14

How long does sperm survive? egg?

48 hours = sperm
12 hours = egg

15

What is the minimum embryo number for pigs?

4

16

How long is pig gestation?

115 d (3 mos, 3 weeks, 3 days)

17

What supplies progesterone during pregnancy?

CL supplies until implantation, then embryos supply progesterone (and if t support pregnancy)

18

What BCS do you want for sows @ service and farrowing?

2.5 @ service
3.5 @ farrowing

19

What three vaccinations are important wrt reproductive status?

-Parvovirus (single dose to gilts, 3 weeks pre-service)
-PRRS (single dose to gilts, 2-4 weeks pre-service)
-Swine flu (gilts, 6 and 3 weeks pre-service)

20

How and when do you diagnose pregnancy? (4)

1) detect returns to estrus (17-24d)
2) B-mode US (25d - term)
3) Doppler US (29-34d - picking up fremitus)
4) Rectal palpation (29d - term)

21

What is target weaning to service interval?

5-6 days

22

What is an "empty day"

any day a female isn't pregnant or lactating

23

What are some common infertility problems?

1) Regular returns to heat
2) Delayed returns to estrus
3) Emptry sows at PD
4) Failure to farrow
5) Abortions
6) Low # piglets born
7) High # empty days

24

What could cause regular returns to estrus? (high levels)

Incorrect heat detection
Poor sow fitness
Poor mating management
Poor semen quality
Poor AI technique
Infectious failure

25

How can you tell around how many days old an aborted fetus is?

Measuring crown-rump length

26

What do you need to investigate when you have a sow that has aborted?

Count the fetuses (needs at least 4)
Are the fetuses fresh? mummified?
Measure crown-rump length (find out about how old they are)
Examine for specific pathogens
Examine sow for fever
Examine herd for specific disease

27

What can cause a low # of pigs to be born?

Low ovulation rates
Poor sow condition
Low fertility
Poor Boar
Mummies/stillborn
Season (summer or autumn infertility)
Specific diseases

28

What can cause poor production of semen (poor quality semen)?

young/old/congenital
high ambient temperature
fever
up to 6 weeks before
overuse (boar teams)
specific disease

29

What are the indications for Altrenogest? (regumate)

For synchronization of estrus & improvement of litter size in sexually mature gilts (and also to improve farrowing rate in sows)

30

For how long do you give Altrenogest to gilts? sows? and how is it given?

18days for gilts
3 days for sows
Orally, with feed

31

At what days during gestation do you increase feed (kg/day)?

~day 22 (to prime muscle fibers of fetus for growth)
~day 78 (for last part of trimester with most fetal growth)

Don't give increased meal the whole time b/c don't want fat pigs

32

How do you treat anestrus in sows?

PG600 for anestrus
Estrus for 5 days
Wait 10 days before repeat

33

What can cause IRREGULAR returns to estrus?

Implantation failure (<13-14d)
Embryonic failure (14-35d)
Fetal failure (35d - term)
failure to establish
failure of established conceptuses

Non-infectious causes
Number
Timing of matings
Local & systemic infection

34

When do you get seasonal infertility?

Summer and Autumn

35

Describe summer infertility and how you control it.

Late June/July
Increased returns to service (often irregular)
Delayed puberty in gilts
Subsequently reduce litter size
Controls = provide shade/shelter/wallows, increase boar contact, maximize nutrient intake of lactating and weaned sows, inseminate at coolers times of day, increase frequency of estrus detection (ovulation can occur earlier in summer), serve extra gilts and/or culls to enure sufficient in pig

36

Describe autumn infertility and how you control it.

Late August/September
Increased returns to service (often irregular)
(can return earlier vs summer infertility)
Subsequently reduced litter size
Controls = increased nutrient provision, provide max of 16 hours of good light in dry sow accomodation / service shed, paint walls white to increase reflected light, increase boar contact, serve more gilts to cover early pregnancy losses, use of PG600 (gonadotrophin)

37

What are some bacteria that can cause local infections leading to infertility?

A. pyogenes, E. coli, Streptococci, Actinobacilli, Actinobaculum suis, Arcobacter cryoaerophila
Endometritis

38

When are normal vaginal discharges gone after farrowing?

5 days

39

When should you definitely NOT see vaginal discharge?

during pregnancy

40

What kind of vaginal discharge would suggest endometritis?

profuse, creamy discharge

41

What are some infectious causes of infertility (most viruses)

Porcine parvovirus
PRRS
Porcine enterovirus
Lepto
Swine flu

42

Why is porcine parvovirus not as common in the UK anymore?

vaccines

43

What is the pathogenesis of porcine parvo?

Oronasal or venereal infections
Viremia occurs, virus crosses placenta in 10-14d
kills piglets to 67days gestation (attaches to zona pellucida)

44

CS of porcine parvovirus?

Returns to estrus
Failure to farrow
Small litters
Infertility
MUMMIFIED FETUSES! (later than day 35 - reabsorbed before then)
Stillbirths

45

Dx of porcine parvovirus?

returns to estrus
small litters, mummies, stillbirths
Confirmation w/ ELISA (presence of Ab in fetus)

46

Control of porcine parvovirus?

Vaccines - (Procilis ery-parvo, Suvaxyn parvo ST)
-single dose IM @ 2 weeks before service minimum
-annual booster in farrowing for procilis
-booster @ each parity for suvaxyn

47

What is SMEDI, and what does it refer to?

Stillbirth, mummies, embryonic death, infertility
Enteroviruses

48

Dx of swine flu?

-CS or respiratory dz affecting all ages of pig in herd w/ no response to abx
-Pair serum samples essential if chronic
-virus isolation possible from nasal or tonsillar swabs

49

Control of swine flu?

Vaccination
2 doses given IM 3 weeks apart, course completed by 3 weeks pre service in gilts (any time in sows)
booster pre-farrowing

50

Porcine lepto pathogenesis?

Ingestion, abrasions, direct contact, venereal spread
Bacteremia -> septicemia
7-10d circulating Ab
Fetal infection <50d = kills (abortion 10-4 weeks after infection)

51

CS porcine lepto?

Inapparent in many pigs
Acute disease fever up to 40C
Dull, anorexic, icterus

52

Pm findings for porcine lepto?

Septicemia
Jaundice
Liver damage
Fetuses w/ pomona / canicola have fresh hemorrhages
Renal lesions in clinically normal pigs
Histo demonstrates organisms

53

Spread of porcine lepto?

Urine, venereal, rats/wildlife
Zoonosis!

54

Dx of porcine lepto?

CS in non-breeding pigs suggestive
stillbirths, mummies, weak born piglets
Demonstration of rising Ab titer in paired serum samples
Demonstration of organism in tissue from aborted fetuses by FAT, PCR, Immunoperoxidase

55

Tx porcine lepto?

Dihydrostreptomycin best abx for acutely ill tx, 2-3d
Use tetracyclines to tx infertility

56

Control of porcine lepto?

Tx sows and gilts w/ tetracyclines for 4-6 weeks in feed
(no vx in UK, but elsewhere)

57

What does Aujeszky's disease cause in non-immune sows?

abortion

but repro signs are unlikely to be first evidence of this infection

58

What does toxoplasmosis cause? How do you tx it?

early abortions, stillbirths, mummies

Trimethoprim sulphonamide

59

what does MMA stand for?

Mastitis, metritis, and agalactia syndrome

60

What causes mastitis in pigs?

E. coli
(ascending infection, endotoxin has local and central actions)

61

CS of mastitis?

Depression
Inappetance
Fever (40.5-42)
Pain over udder
Firm udder or firm single gland
Piglets thin and hungry

62

Tx / management of mastitis?

Tx w/ oxytocin
Parenteral abx suitable for E. coli (ampi, amoxi, trimethoprim sulphonamide)
NSAIDs (meloxicam, ketoprofen)
Supplementary feeding for litter

63

Name some causes of metritis?

E. coli
Streptococcus spp.
Staph spp
T. pyogenes
Clostridia
Arcobacters

64

What diseases would you take a serology sample for?

Where clinical Hx is suggestive, take clotted blood for:
PRRS
Lepto
Parvo
Swine flu