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Flashcards in Pig Management Diseases Deck (34):

Name some common pig parasites

Hyostrongylus rubidus, Trichuris suis, Metastrongylus apri, Sarcoptes scabei

(and Isospora suis, but that's not in this lecture)


What are some management problems with outdoor sows?

Cold, sunburn, salt poisoning, bird strike, starvation/bullying


What is thin sow syndrome?

= Inadequate body condition to function properly
Caused by: Feeding too little in pregnancy or lactation, Bullying, Excess E loss (cold), Parasitism (internal or external)
Damage can occur b/c of poor SQ fat cover = common when farrowing indoors and on concrete.


Where are lesions most common with thin sow syndrome?

Over the shoulder (also seen on hips and back)


Describe hyostrongylus rubidus infection in pigs (CS), and how do you dx?

Gives gastric mucosa a leather appearance
Weight loss in lactation (continues post-weaning)
Reduced fertility (prolonged weaning-service)
Dx = FEC and plasma pepsinogen


Describe trichuris suis infection in pigs (CS)

Mild diarrhea
Reduced weight gain
Cause mucosal damage that can be invaded by secondary infections
Immunity develops w/ age


Describe Metastrongylus apri infection (CS)

Coughing, Dyspnea
Reduced growth and emphysematous lesions in diaphragmatic lobes of outdoor pigs

(this is the main lungworm in the UK)


What is the intermediate host for metastrongylus apri?



Describe sarcoptes scabei infection in pigs (CS)

Intense pruritis
can contribute to thin sow syndrome
mites found around ears
Lesions = hypersensitivity reaction
Infection spread pig to pig and from environment (mite can survive 2 weeks off pig)


Name 3 premixed anthelmintics and how long are they given for?

Ivermectins - 7d
Benzimidazoles/Flubendazoles - 5d growers, 10d breeders


Name 2 water soluble anthelmintic, how long are they given?

Panacur (fenbendazole) - 2d
Solubenol (flubendazole) - 2d growers/finishers, 5d breeders


Name a parenteral anthelmintic



What is the worming protocol for breeding stock?

Worm 2x/year - Spring & Autumn


What is the worming protocol for fattening pigs?

Worm every 2 months, from weaning
(not done routinely in UK fattening stock unless high levels of milk spot detected at abattoir)


What are some managemental farrowing problems? (6)

Farrowing crate adjustment
Use of prostaglandin @ wrong day of gestation
Positioning of creep lights
Poor colostral intake (supervised farrowing)
Poor hygiene at interference
Trauma in farrowing crate


From what day in gestation are pigs viable?
Giving prostaglandin early can cause what?

-Viable from day 111
-Prostaglandins are used to induce farrowing, giving early can lead to: premature piglets!
Which in turn leads to --> increased risk of splay leg, possible compromise of colostral quantity and quality


How do you position creep lights?

Period after farrowing is critical
Should be placed to rear of sow and in the creep area
Rear lights should be switched off after the sow has finished farrowing
Piglets will then be safe in the creep area away from sow


What causes salt poisoning?

Water deprivation or or excess dietary salt
Can affect immobile individuals
Freezing conditions, drought, burst pipes can reduce water


CS of salt poisoning?

Prostration w/ paddling
Death (if total water deprivation)

If water deprivation isn't complete, or this is a result of increased salt intake = blindness, unresponsiveess to external stimuli, inappetance, head pressing, circling, convulsions


What is the pathognomonic PM finding for salt poisoning?

Meningoencephalitis w/ edema & eosinophil accumulations around vessels of cerebral cortex and meninges


How do you treat salt poisoning?

Change to low Na diet
Re-introduce water slowly (quick re-introduction of water can exacerbate CS)
Betamethasone 2mg/kg
Keep in subdued light
Euthanize if no improvement after 36 hours


What kind of anemia is iron deficiency anemia?

Hypochromic, microcytic


How much iron does a piglet need and how much from sow's milk?

15mg/day needed, 1mg/day from milk


What are CS of iron deficiency anemia seen in piglets?

10-14 days


CS of Fe deficiency anemia?

Reduced growth, thin
+/- Jaundiced
Sudden deaths


Dx of iron defiency anemia?

Pale pigs w/ thin watery blood
Hematolgy and Hb measurement (<70g/l=suggestive)
Live Fe measurements
Liver is enlarged and heart may be flabby and enlarged


Tx/prevention of Fe deficiency anemia?

IM injections of iron dextran or gleptoferron (@ 1-3 days of age) for prevention
Oral supplements (pastes/granules) can be given p.o. or scattered on the ground
When they do have anemia, Vit E and Selenium should also be supplemented


What are some triggers for tail biting?

Temperature changes
Heavy stocking rates
Mixed genetic lines / tail lengths
Vit E deficiency
High fat diets
Concomittant disease


How do you control tail biting?

Docking (but CANNOT do this routinely)
Remove trigger factors
Increase salt content of diet if housed on slats (to max of 1%)
Remove affected pigs ASAP


When do you euthanize a tail bitten pig?

If no tail remaining, open wound/swelling abscessation on tail head - euthanize on farm


What can occur as a consequence of tooth clipping?

Damage to sow udder
Injury - resulting in entrance of Staph hyicus to cause greasy pig disease

Tooth clipping is NOT a routine procedure in UK


Under what tail biting conditions can you still send the pig to slaughter?

If the wound has healed and there is no evidence of abcesses


What is immunological castration?

Vx used to reduce testicular function w/o surgery
Antibodies grow to GnRF
Growth rates are maintained up to the late finishing period
Improvac available in UK
[not widely used b/c not always accepted by supermarkets and QA schemes]


What is the minimum # of sows that should be housed together and why?

Groups should be either 8-16 (very large) b/c sows fight for dominance when grouped

Grouped after weaning, when loose housed after service, or when heavily pregnant