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Flashcards in Pig Neonatal Disease Deck (63):
1

Name the 9 common neonatal diseases

Enteric colibacillosis
Clostridia perfringens (type A)
Clostridial enteritis Type C
PRRS
PED (porcine endemic d+)
Rotavirus
Colisepticemia
Coccidiosis
Salmonella

2

Which of the common diseases have villous atrophy?

PED, rotavirus, coccidiosis, clostridial enteritis (C) & clostridial perfringens (A)

3

Which disease do you see 10 day scour?

coccidiosis

4

CS of enteric colibacilosis?

watery diarrhea (clear)
onset 12 hr -> 4 days
piglets w/ hunched backs, drooping tails, dehydration, fluid filled intestines, metabolic acidosis

5

how long are maternal antibodies for enteric colibacilosis?

14 days

6

How is enteric colibacilosis spread?

Feces, carriers, in dust/pen/furniture for months

fomite spread and in pigs

7

PM findings of enteric colibacilosis?

dehydrated carcass, congested liver, clear fluid in SI, villi intact, E. coli isolated if profuse pure culture from SI

8

Dx of enteric colibacilosis?

CS (watery diarrhea 12hr-4d)
death from dehydration
INTACT VILLI
Isolation of enterotoxigenic E. coli in SI

9

Tx of enteric colibacilosis?

Abx (oral or parenteral) - spectinomycin, trimethoprim sulphadiazine, Amoxy/clav, Colistin

Support w/ heat, fluid orally

Good prognosis

10

Control of enteric colibacilosis?

Vaccination (sow) -6 & 3 weeks pre-partum
Colostrum
Hygiene
Warmth
Breeding stock w/ inherent resistance (esp to K88)

11

how long until a pig dies from colisepticemia?

12 - 48 hours

12

CS of colisepticemia?

initial pyrexia then decrease to hypothermia
raised hair coat
coma
convulsions
death w/in 48 hours

13

How much colostrum to piglets need to drink, and by when? (best to help prevent disease)

minimum 100 ml w/in 6 hours

14

CS of rotavirus?

fluid/creamy diarrhea - yellow w/ milk floccules
(then loose yellow diarrhea 7-14d after)
depression, anorexia, reluctance to move
vomiting

15

Spread of rotavirus?

Feces, fomites, water, rodents, man, sow feces @ farrowing
Strain A early in life, then B and C

16

DX of rotavirus?

CS @ 7-14d
most of litter affected
creamy feces, villous atrophy
Demonstrate roatvirus by: Latex agglutination, EM, ELISA, PCR
Sending whole piglet to lab is ideal

17

Tx for rotavirus?

nothing specific
Abx
Fluids
Vaccination (not available in UK - and ineffective b/c virus changes)
Feedback!

18

What is feedback?

exposing sows to piglet/farrowing material (feces, placenta, etc) - give to dry sows then they get exposure to it beforehand

Done under license in UK!

19

What is the main cause of coccidiosis?

Isospora suis

20

spread/infection of coccidiosis?

Oocysts in piglet feces -> sporulate -> on pen, soil, sow's udder, etc. [oral infection]

no colostral protection

21

You see pigs with creamy/watery diarrhea with necrotic material - peaking @ days 10-14, it resolves by weaning, they are dehydrated, and losing condition. What do they have?

Coccidiosis

22

Dx of coccidiosis?

-CS
-Fecal sample - d+ from 2-3 weeks of life are best, combine litter samples (min 10)
-Poor abx response
-villous atrophy
-direct smears of mucosa

23

Treatment of coccidiosis?

Abx - Trimethoprime sulphonamide orally @ onset, then injection w/ it @ days 4, 5, 6
Fluid therapy

24

Control of coccidiosis?

Toltrazuril prophylactically
Tx of sows w/ coccidiostat (not registered)
Slatted floors
Hygiene
Outdoor herds, all in - all out management

25

What type of toxin for Clostridial enteritis type C?

Beta toxin
FATAL

26

What can increase risk of getting clostridial enteritis?

Not getting colostrum, getting colostrum w/ no maternal Ab, the colostral Ab has declined and no active immunity, Milk withdrawn (trypsin gone), Disruption of gut wall & no immune protection

27

what age does clostridial enteritis affect most?

under 7 days old

28

CS of clostridial enteritis?

bloody diarrhea, sudden death
mildy affected = loss of condition & diarrhea w/ necrotic material

29

Which bacteria toxin flourishes when no trypsin or Ab present?

Clostridia perfringens type C, beta toxin (clostridial enteritis)

30

Transmission/Infection of clostridial enteritis (type C)?

Infection w/ spores or vegetative organisms
Present in farrowing house or soil, +/- sow feces, occur in non-immune litters

31

Dx of clostridial enteritis type C?

bloody diarrhea
high mortality
Red intestines on PM
Isolation of Clostridia perfringens in smears or culture
Beta toxin found on ELISA or PCR

32

Tx of clostridial enteritis?

Can't tx when clinical disease seen, because damage already done to villi

Can use Abx (amoxi) prophylactically

33

Control of clostridial enertitis type C?

Oral amoxi
Vaccination - toxoid / killed culture to sows (6 & 3 weeks pre partum)

34

Which neonatal diseases have vaccinations? (5)

Clostridial enteritis (type C)
Clostridial perfringens (type A)
Enteric colibacilosis
PRRS
PED (but limited success)

35

CS of clostridial perfringens type A?

looks like mild type C infection
Death uncommon
Creamy/pink diarrhea
Dull sunken flanks
CONDITION LOSS

36

What kind of toxin for clostridial perfringens type A?

alpha toxin

37

Dx of clostridial perfringens type A?

CS (especially absence of bloody diarrhea and low mortality)
congested SI w/ necrosis of mucosa and no blood in contents
Isolation of clostridial perfringens type A only!

38

Tx of clostridial perfringens tpe A

Parenteral penicillins
Oral amoxi
Hygiene
Oral electrolytes

39

Control of clostridial perfringens type A?

Vaccination - sow (and into colostrum) - though no licensed in the UK

40

Most common type of salmonella for piglets?

salmonella typhimurium

41

CS of salmonellosis?

2-3 pigs / litter
some may day but most stunted growth
pyrexia
brown diarrhea w/ necrotic material

42

Dx of salmonellosis?

Salmonella isolated in profuse culture

43

Dx of PRRS?

ABSENCE OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES
transient decrease in WBC
CS
Gross lesions
Intestinal pneumonitis
Demonstration of virus in tissue
Virus isolation
Serology - 3 weeks later to allow for seroconversion

44

What kind of virus is PRRS?

RNA arterivirus

45

How does PRRS affect weaners/growers vs sows?

Weaners/growers = Increased RR
Sows = reproductive disruption (increased stillbirths, returns to estrus)

46

CS of PRRS?

Labored breathing during acute breakdown (in piglets and non-immune)
No CS in high health herds
Pyrexia, weakness, splay legs (immature muscle fibers)
Cyanosis or flushing (BLUE EAR)
Raised RR (young)
Eyelid/facial edema
Secondary diseases

47

Transmission / infection of PRRS?

Respiratory route or contact
[can spread in wind up to 3km]
Semen
Placental in some cases

48

Pathogenesis of infection of PRRS?

viremia
alveolar macrophage destruction
cytokines cause vascular lesions
interstitial pneumonitis
onset governed by maternal Ab

49

PM findings for PRRS

Anterior lobe rubbery pneumonia
excess pleural and pericardial fluid
enlarged LN
No alveolar macrophages
Proliferative interstitial pneumonia

50

Control of PRRS?

Isolation [can spread in wind up to 3km]
Purchase seronegative pigs
Maternal Ab 4-5 weeks
Three site production! (remove them from a site where they can get it)
Vaccination - live attenuated (best), killed
control 2ndry infections

51

What kind of virus causes PED?

Corona virus

52

where is PED endemic?

USA (NA), and Hawaii, Europe

53

CS of PED (acute cases)

Fluid yellow diarrhea (SEVERE, rapid spread - fetid and flocculent)
+/- vomiting
severe dehydration
100% mortality in pigs < 7 days
3% mortality in weaned pigs

54

CS of PED (less acute cases)

Decreased severity vs acute cases
Still fluid yellow diarrhea
less vomiting
Only slight scour in older pigs (> 6 weeks)
reduced appetite, reduced performance after infection

55

Transmission / spread of PED?

Scour is HIGHLY infectious
virus survives 4 weeks in slurry
Spread via people, vehicles, fomites, manure, animal movements, aerosol, or feed
-Disease is possible in piglets from immune sows

56

Dx of PED?

PM of piglets = distended, fluid filled, THIN WALLED loops of gut
Histopath shows villous atrophy
IHC
Real-time PCR to confirm

57

Tx of PED?

Supportive (clean, dry, warm)
Electrolytes
+/- Abx
Euthanize severe cases

58

Pathogenesis of PED?

Incubation period ~24 hours
virus destroys mature enterocytes
villus atrophy and fusion
dehydration
Shed in feces for 35 days
Stimulates good CMI and adults become immune temporarily after recovery (but only for ~4 mos, then susceptible again)

59

Control of PED?

Biosecurity!
Stop use of SDPP (spray dried plasma proteins)
Closed herd for 90days minimum
Used controlled exposure (feedback) to all sows, gilts, maidens (using piglet scour)
Vx limited success
Hygiene!!

60

What two diseases are feedback suggested for control?

Rotavirus and PED

61

What is good sampling practice (to send to lab) for neonatal disease?

Entire carcasses are best (freshly dead or ones that look like they are coming down with the disease)
PM for tissues to lab should be carried out where entire isn't possible
Fecal samples & swabs are last resort!

62

What is target pre-weaning piglet mortality for an average farm? and at what percentage should you intervene?

< 10% = target
> 13% = intervene

63

What is weaning weight target, and when should you intervene? (kg)

Target = 8kg
Intervention = 6.5kg