Flashcards in Pig Neonatal Disease Deck (63):
Name the 9 common neonatal diseases
Clostridia perfringens (type A)
Clostridial enteritis Type C
PED (porcine endemic d+)
Which of the common diseases have villous atrophy?
PED, rotavirus, coccidiosis, clostridial enteritis (C) & clostridial perfringens (A)
Which disease do you see 10 day scour?
CS of enteric colibacilosis?
watery diarrhea (clear)
onset 12 hr -> 4 days
piglets w/ hunched backs, drooping tails, dehydration, fluid filled intestines, metabolic acidosis
how long are maternal antibodies for enteric colibacilosis?
How is enteric colibacilosis spread?
Feces, carriers, in dust/pen/furniture for months
fomite spread and in pigs
PM findings of enteric colibacilosis?
dehydrated carcass, congested liver, clear fluid in SI, villi intact, E. coli isolated if profuse pure culture from SI
Dx of enteric colibacilosis?
CS (watery diarrhea 12hr-4d)
death from dehydration
Isolation of enterotoxigenic E. coli in SI
Tx of enteric colibacilosis?
Abx (oral or parenteral) - spectinomycin, trimethoprim sulphadiazine, Amoxy/clav, Colistin
Support w/ heat, fluid orally
Control of enteric colibacilosis?
Vaccination (sow) -6 & 3 weeks pre-partum
Breeding stock w/ inherent resistance (esp to K88)
how long until a pig dies from colisepticemia?
12 - 48 hours
CS of colisepticemia?
initial pyrexia then decrease to hypothermia
raised hair coat
death w/in 48 hours
How much colostrum to piglets need to drink, and by when? (best to help prevent disease)
minimum 100 ml w/in 6 hours
CS of rotavirus?
fluid/creamy diarrhea - yellow w/ milk floccules
(then loose yellow diarrhea 7-14d after)
depression, anorexia, reluctance to move
Spread of rotavirus?
Feces, fomites, water, rodents, man, sow feces @ farrowing
Strain A early in life, then B and C
DX of rotavirus?
CS @ 7-14d
most of litter affected
creamy feces, villous atrophy
Demonstrate roatvirus by: Latex agglutination, EM, ELISA, PCR
Sending whole piglet to lab is ideal
Tx for rotavirus?
Vaccination (not available in UK - and ineffective b/c virus changes)
What is feedback?
exposing sows to piglet/farrowing material (feces, placenta, etc) - give to dry sows then they get exposure to it beforehand
Done under license in UK!
What is the main cause of coccidiosis?
spread/infection of coccidiosis?
Oocysts in piglet feces -> sporulate -> on pen, soil, sow's udder, etc. [oral infection]
no colostral protection
You see pigs with creamy/watery diarrhea with necrotic material - peaking @ days 10-14, it resolves by weaning, they are dehydrated, and losing condition. What do they have?
Dx of coccidiosis?
-Fecal sample - d+ from 2-3 weeks of life are best, combine litter samples (min 10)
-Poor abx response
-direct smears of mucosa
Treatment of coccidiosis?
Abx - Trimethoprime sulphonamide orally @ onset, then injection w/ it @ days 4, 5, 6
Control of coccidiosis?
Tx of sows w/ coccidiostat (not registered)
Outdoor herds, all in - all out management
What type of toxin for Clostridial enteritis type C?
What can increase risk of getting clostridial enteritis?
Not getting colostrum, getting colostrum w/ no maternal Ab, the colostral Ab has declined and no active immunity, Milk withdrawn (trypsin gone), Disruption of gut wall & no immune protection
what age does clostridial enteritis affect most?
under 7 days old
CS of clostridial enteritis?
bloody diarrhea, sudden death
mildy affected = loss of condition & diarrhea w/ necrotic material
Which bacteria toxin flourishes when no trypsin or Ab present?
Clostridia perfringens type C, beta toxin (clostridial enteritis)
Transmission/Infection of clostridial enteritis (type C)?
Infection w/ spores or vegetative organisms
Present in farrowing house or soil, +/- sow feces, occur in non-immune litters
Dx of clostridial enteritis type C?
Red intestines on PM
Isolation of Clostridia perfringens in smears or culture
Beta toxin found on ELISA or PCR
Tx of clostridial enteritis?
Can't tx when clinical disease seen, because damage already done to villi
Can use Abx (amoxi) prophylactically
Control of clostridial enertitis type C?
Vaccination - toxoid / killed culture to sows (6 & 3 weeks pre partum)
Which neonatal diseases have vaccinations? (5)
Clostridial enteritis (type C)
Clostridial perfringens (type A)
PED (but limited success)
CS of clostridial perfringens type A?
looks like mild type C infection
Dull sunken flanks
What kind of toxin for clostridial perfringens type A?
Dx of clostridial perfringens type A?
CS (especially absence of bloody diarrhea and low mortality)
congested SI w/ necrosis of mucosa and no blood in contents
Isolation of clostridial perfringens type A only!
Tx of clostridial perfringens tpe A
Control of clostridial perfringens type A?
Vaccination - sow (and into colostrum) - though no licensed in the UK
Most common type of salmonella for piglets?
CS of salmonellosis?
2-3 pigs / litter
some may day but most stunted growth
brown diarrhea w/ necrotic material
Dx of salmonellosis?
Salmonella isolated in profuse culture
Dx of PRRS?
ABSENCE OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES
transient decrease in WBC
Demonstration of virus in tissue
Serology - 3 weeks later to allow for seroconversion
What kind of virus is PRRS?
How does PRRS affect weaners/growers vs sows?
Weaners/growers = Increased RR
Sows = reproductive disruption (increased stillbirths, returns to estrus)
CS of PRRS?
Labored breathing during acute breakdown (in piglets and non-immune)
No CS in high health herds
Pyrexia, weakness, splay legs (immature muscle fibers)
Cyanosis or flushing (BLUE EAR)
Raised RR (young)
Transmission / infection of PRRS?
Respiratory route or contact
[can spread in wind up to 3km]
Placental in some cases
Pathogenesis of infection of PRRS?
alveolar macrophage destruction
cytokines cause vascular lesions
onset governed by maternal Ab
PM findings for PRRS
Anterior lobe rubbery pneumonia
excess pleural and pericardial fluid
No alveolar macrophages
Proliferative interstitial pneumonia
Control of PRRS?
Isolation [can spread in wind up to 3km]
Purchase seronegative pigs
Maternal Ab 4-5 weeks
Three site production! (remove them from a site where they can get it)
Vaccination - live attenuated (best), killed
control 2ndry infections
What kind of virus causes PED?
where is PED endemic?
USA (NA), and Hawaii, Europe
CS of PED (acute cases)
Fluid yellow diarrhea (SEVERE, rapid spread - fetid and flocculent)
100% mortality in pigs < 7 days
3% mortality in weaned pigs
CS of PED (less acute cases)
Decreased severity vs acute cases
Still fluid yellow diarrhea
Only slight scour in older pigs (> 6 weeks)
reduced appetite, reduced performance after infection
Transmission / spread of PED?
Scour is HIGHLY infectious
virus survives 4 weeks in slurry
Spread via people, vehicles, fomites, manure, animal movements, aerosol, or feed
-Disease is possible in piglets from immune sows
Dx of PED?
PM of piglets = distended, fluid filled, THIN WALLED loops of gut
Histopath shows villous atrophy
Real-time PCR to confirm
Tx of PED?
Supportive (clean, dry, warm)
Euthanize severe cases
Pathogenesis of PED?
Incubation period ~24 hours
virus destroys mature enterocytes
villus atrophy and fusion
Shed in feces for 35 days
Stimulates good CMI and adults become immune temporarily after recovery (but only for ~4 mos, then susceptible again)
Control of PED?
Stop use of SDPP (spray dried plasma proteins)
Closed herd for 90days minimum
Used controlled exposure (feedback) to all sows, gilts, maidens (using piglet scour)
Vx limited success
What two diseases are feedback suggested for control?
Rotavirus and PED
What is good sampling practice (to send to lab) for neonatal disease?
Entire carcasses are best (freshly dead or ones that look like they are coming down with the disease)
PM for tissues to lab should be carried out where entire isn't possible
Fecal samples & swabs are last resort!
What is target pre-weaning piglet mortality for an average farm? and at what percentage should you intervene?
< 10% = target
> 13% = intervene