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Flashcards in Placental Examination Deck (18)
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1
Q

Give FOUR points of description of the placenta at term

A
  • Is flat and round or oval in shape
  • 18-20cm in diameter and up to 2.5cm thick in the centre
  • Weights approximately 600g or a sixth of the baby’s birthweight
  • Usually situated on anterior or posterior wall of the uterus near the fundus
2
Q

Give FIVE points of description of the maternal side of the placenta

A
  • Is deep red in colour
  • Divided by deep grooves (sulci) into 15-20 irregular lobes (cotyledons (contain the chorionic villi))
  • Should look complete with no gaps
  • Fibrin deposits may give it a greyish colour
  • Calcification (lime salt deposits) may may it look gritty
3
Q

Give FOUR points of description of the fetal side of the placenta

A
  • Lies adjacent to the fetus
  • White shiny appearance
  • Covered with amnion
  • Insertion of the cord is usually central and the blood vessels can be seen radiating out to the peripheral edges
4
Q

Name the TWO types of fetal membranes

A
  • Chorion

- Amnion

5
Q

List SIX things that describe the chorion

A
  • It is the outer membrane
  • Lines the uterine cavity
  • Opaque and thick but friable
  • Derived from the trophoblast
  • Continuous with the edge of the placenta
  • Produces prostaglandins and oxytocin
6
Q

List SIX things that describe the amnion

A
  • It is the inner membrane
  • Derived from the inner cell mass
  • Smooth, transparent and the stronger of the two
  • Amnion can be pulled back to insertion of cord
  • Secretes amniotic fluid
  • Produces prostaglandins
7
Q

What is a succenturiate lobe placenta?

A

When a small portion of lobe is separated from the main body. Attached to main placenta by blood vessels

8
Q

What is a circumvallate placenta?

A

When the chorion is attached not to the edge of the placenta but to the fetal surface some distance from the edge.

9
Q

What is a bipartite placenta?

A

When it is divided in to two lobes

10
Q

What is a tri-partite placenta?

A

When it is divided in to three lobes

11
Q

What is placenta accreta?

A

When it is abnormally adherant to the uterine muscle

12
Q

How many veins and arteries does the cord contain?

A

Two arteries and one vein

in the Jelly is an Artery a Vein and an Artery - JAVA

13
Q

Which membrane covers the cord?

A

Amnion

14
Q

Roughly how long and how thick is a cord?

A

50cm long and 2cm thick

15
Q

What is the composition of amniotic fluid?

A
  • Clear straw coloured fluid
  • 99% water and 1% solid matter
  • Solid matter consists of: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and phospholipids, electrolytes, urea, uric acid, and creatinine, enzymes and placenta hormones
  • Also contains fetal epithelial cells, vernix caseosa and laguno - makes liquid milky
16
Q

By 38 weeks, how many milliletres of amniotic fluid is there?

A

1000 - 1500ml

17
Q

What volume does the amniotic fluid decrease to after 38 weeks?

A

800ml

18
Q

List SEVEN functions of the amniotic fluid

A
  • Provides a medium for fetus to move freely and effortlessly
  • Equalize pressure
  • To act as a shock absorber, protecting fetus
  • Maintains a constant temperature
  • Prevent pressure on the cord
  • Provide some nutritive substance for the fetus
  • During labour, it aids effacement and dilation of the cervix