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Flashcards in Placental Examination Deck (18)
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Give FOUR points of description of the placenta at term

-Is flat and round or oval in shape
-18-20cm in diameter and up to 2.5cm thick in the centre
-Weights approximately 600g or a sixth of the baby's birthweight
-Usually situated on anterior or posterior wall of the uterus near the fundus


Give FIVE points of description of the maternal side of the placenta

-Is deep red in colour
-Divided by deep grooves (sulci) into 15-20 irregular lobes (cotyledons (contain the chorionic villi))
-Should look complete with no gaps
-Fibrin deposits may give it a greyish colour
-Calcification (lime salt deposits) may may it look gritty


Give FOUR points of description of the fetal side of the placenta

-Lies adjacent to the fetus
-White shiny appearance
-Covered with amnion
-Insertion of the cord is usually central and the blood vessels can be seen radiating out to the peripheral edges


Name the TWO types of fetal membranes



List SIX things that describe the chorion

-It is the outer membrane
-Lines the uterine cavity
-Opaque and thick but friable
-Derived from the trophoblast
-Continuous with the edge of the placenta
-Produces prostaglandins and oxytocin


List SIX things that describe the amnion

-It is the inner membrane
-Derived from the inner cell mass
-Smooth, transparent and the stronger of the two
-Amnion can be pulled back to insertion of cord
-Secretes amniotic fluid
-Produces prostaglandins


What is a succenturiate lobe placenta?

When a small portion of lobe is separated from the main body. Attached to main placenta by blood vessels


What is a circumvallate placenta?

When the chorion is attached not to the edge of the placenta but to the fetal surface some distance from the edge.


What is a bipartite placenta?

When it is divided in to two lobes


What is a tri-partite placenta?

When it is divided in to three lobes


What is placenta accreta?

When it is abnormally adherant to the uterine muscle


How many veins and arteries does the cord contain?

Two arteries and one vein
(in the Jelly is an Artery a Vein and an Artery - JAVA)


Which membrane covers the cord?



Roughly how long and how thick is a cord?

50cm long and 2cm thick


What is the composition of amniotic fluid?

-Clear straw coloured fluid
-99% water and 1% solid matter
-Solid matter consists of: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and phospholipids, electrolytes, urea, uric acid, and creatinine, enzymes and placenta hormones
-Also contains fetal epithelial cells, vernix caseosa and laguno - makes liquid milky


By 38 weeks, how many milliletres of amniotic fluid is there?

1000 - 1500ml


What volume does the amniotic fluid decrease to after 38 weeks?



List SEVEN functions of the amniotic fluid

-Provides a medium for fetus to move freely and effortlessly
-Equalize pressure
-To act as a shock absorber, protecting fetus
-Maintains a constant temperature
-Prevent pressure on the cord
-Provide some nutritive substance for the fetus
-During labour, it aids effacement and dilation of the cervix