Anatomy of the Breasts and Physiology of Lactation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Breasts and Physiology of Lactation Deck (14)
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1
Q

Describe the external structure of the breast

A
  • Situated one on each side of the midline on the anterior chest wall
  • Extend from the second to the sixth rib
  • Lie over the pectoralis major muscle
  • Supported by connective tissue
  • Hemispherical in shape- axillary tail
2
Q

What is the areola?

A

Pigmented area surrounding the nipple

3
Q

What are the alveoli?

A

Minute sacs of milk secreting cells around a lumen

4
Q

Which hormone stimulates alveoli to produce milk and where is it released from?

A

Prolactin which is released from the Anterior Pituitary Gland

5
Q

How quickly do prolactin levels rise?

A

Within 10 minutes of suckling

6
Q

What is an acini cell?

A

A milk-secreting cell

7
Q

What causes the prolactin receptor sites to open on the acini cells?

A

The expulsion of the placenta following birth

8
Q

How and where is oxytocin secreted?

A

When the baby suckles, a sensory impulse triggers the Posterior Pituitary Gland to secrete oxytocin

9
Q

What effect does oxytocin have on the breast?

A

It stimulates the myoepithelial cells to contract.

This propels the milk along the ducts to the lactiferous sinuses (ampulla)

10
Q

What can hinder the secretion of oxytocin?

A

Anxiety, stress and pain

11
Q

What are positive signs of breast feeding?

A

Squeezing / tingling in her breasts
Milk leaking
Pain from uterine contractions
Slow deep sucks and swallowing

12
Q

What effect does the feedback inhibitor have on lactation?

A

Breast milk contains a protein which can reduce or inhibit milk production. If the breast contains a lot of milk then the inhibitor acts by slowing down milk production.
Frequent sucking reduces the level of the inhibitor.

13
Q

Describe the ENDOCRINE control of lactation

A

Controlled by pituitary gland using oxytocin and prolactin

It is systemic (both breasts)

14
Q

Describe the AUTOCRINE control of lactation

A

Controlled by feedback inhibitor of laction
A build up slows milk production
A removal of the protein stimulates production
Is it local (one breast)