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Flashcards in Terminology Deck (130):
1

Abruptio placentae

Premature separation of a normally situated placenta

2

Acardiac twin

One twin presents without a well-defined cardiac structure and is kept alive through the placental circulation of the viable twin

3

Amenorrhoea

Absence of menstrual periods

4

Amniotic fluid embolism

The escape of amniotic fluid through the wall of the uterus or placental site into the maternal circulation, triggering life-threatening anaphylactic shock in the mother

5

Amniotomy

Artificial rupture of the amniotic sac

6

Anterior obliquity of the uterus

Altered uterine axis. The uterus leans forward due to poor maternal abdominal muscles and a pendulous abdomen

7

Anuria

Producing no urine

8

Atresia

Closure or absence of a usual opening or canal

9

Augmentation of labour

Intervention to correct slow progress in labour

10

Bandl's Ring

An exaggerated retraction ring seen as an oblique ridge above the symphysis pubis between the upper and lower uterine segments, which is a sign of obstructed labor

11

Bicornuate uterus

A structural abnormality of the uterus

12

Bishops score

Rating system to assess suitability of the cervix for induction of labour

13

Burns Marshall

A method of breech delivery involving traction to prevent the neck from bending backwards

14

Cardiotocograph

Measurement of the fetal heart rate and contractions on a machine that is able to provide a paper print of the information it records

15

Cephalopelvic disproportion

Disparity between the size of the woman's pelvis and the fetal head

16

Cerclage

A non-absorbable suture inserted to keep the cervix closed

17

Cervical ectropion

Physiological response by cervical cells to hormonal changes in pregnancy. Cells proliferate and cause the cervix to appear eroded

18

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN)

Progressive and abnormal growth of cervical cells

19

Cervicitis

Inflammation of the cervix

20

Choanal atresia

(Bilateral) membranous or bony obstruction of the nares; the baby is blue when sleeping and pink when crying

21

Colposcopy

Visualisation of the cervix using a colposcope

22

Couvelaire uterus (uterine apoplexy)

Bruising and oedema of uterine tissue seen in placental abruption, when leaking blood is forced between muscle fibres because the margins of the placenta are still attached to the uterus

23

Diastasis symphysis pubis

A painful condition in which there is an abnormal relaxation of the ligaments supporting the pubic joint

24

Dichorionic twins

Twins who have developed in their own separate chorionic sacs

25

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

A condition secondary to a primary complication where there is appropriate blood clotting in the blood vessels, followed by an inability of the blood to clot appropriately when all the clotting factors have been used up

26

Dizygotic

Formed from two separate zygotes

27

Doering rule

The first fertile day of the cycle is determined by a calculation based upon the earliest previous temperature shift. This is an effective double-check method to identify the onset of the fertile phase

28

Dyspareunia

Painful or difficult intercourse experienced by the woman

29

Echogenic bowel

Bright appearances of bowel, equivalent to the brightness of bone. Also associated with intra-amniotic bleeding and fetal swallowing of blood stained liquor

30

Echogenic foci in the heart

Bright echoes from calcium deposits in the fetal heart, often the left ventricle. These do not affect cardiac function

31

Ectopic pregnancy

An abnormally situated pregnancy, most commonly in a Fallopian tube

32

Endocervical

Relating to the internal canal of the cervix

33

Epicanthic fold

A vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose, which covers lacrimal caruncle. Can be common in Asian babies but may indicate Down syndrome in other ethnic groups

34

Erb's palsy

Paralysis of the arm due to the damage to cervical nerve roots five and six of the brachial plexus

35

Erythema

Reddening of the skin

36

Erythropoiesis

The process by which erythrocytes (red blood cells) are formed. After the 10th week of gestation, erythropoiesis rises and seems to be involved in red cell production in the bone marrow during the third trimester

37

External cephalic version (ECV)

The use of external manipulation on the pregnant woman's abdomen to convert a breech to a cephalic presentation

38

False-negative rate

The proportion of affected pregnancies that would not be identified as high-risk. Tests with a high false-negative rate have low sensitivity.

39

False-positive rate

The proportion of unaffected pregnancies with a high-risk classification. Tests with a high false-positive rate have low specificity.

40

Ferguson reflex

Surge of oxytocin resulting in increased contractions, due to stimulation of the cervix and the upper portion of the vagina.

41

Fetal reduction

The reduction in the number of viable fetuses/embryos in a multiple (usually higher multiple) pregnancy by medical intervention

42

Veto fetal transfusion syndrome (twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS))

Condition in which blood from one monozygotic twin fetus transfuses into the other via blood vessels in the placenta

43

Fetus-in-fetu

Parts of a fetus may be lodged within another fetus. This can only happen in monozygotic twins.

44

Fetus papyraceous

A fetus that dies in the second trimester of the pregnancy and becomes compressed and parchment-like.

45

Fibroid

Firm, benign tumour of muscular and fibrous tissue

46

Fraternal twins

Dizygotic (non-identical) twins

47

Fundal height

The distance between the top part of the uterus (fundus) and the top of the symphysis pubis (the junction between the pubic bones). Measurement of this is undertaken to assess the increasing size of the uterus antenatally and decreasing size postnatally.

48

Haematuria

Blood in the urine

49

Haemostasis

The arrest of bleeding

50

HELLP syndrome

A condition of pregnancy characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets

51

Herpes gestationis

An autoimmune disease precipitated by pregnancy and characterised by an erythematous rash and blisters

52

Homan's sign

Pain is felt in the calf when the foot is pulled upwards. This is indicative of a venous thrombosis and further investigations should be undertaken to confirm or exclude this.

53

Hydatidiform mole

A gross malformation of the trophoblast in which the chorionic villi proliferate and become vascular

54

Hypercapnia

An abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

55

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Protracted or excessive vomiting in pregnancy

56

Hypertrophy

Overgrowth of tissue

57

Hypovolaemia

Reduced circulating blood volume due to external loss of body fluids or to loss of fluid into the tissues.

58

Hypoxia

Lack of oxygen

59

Hysteroscope

An instrument used to access the uterus via the vagina

60

Intraepithelial

Within the epithelium or among epithelial cells

61

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP)

An idiopathic condition of abnormal liver function

62

LAM

A method of contraception based upon an algorithm of lactation, amenorrhoea and a 6 month time period

63

Lanugo

Soft downy hair, which covers the fetus in utero and occasionally the neonate. It appears at around 20 weeks gestation and covers the face and most of the body. It disappears by 40 weeks gestation.

64

Lovset manoeuvre

A manoeuvre for the delivery of shoulders and extended arms in a breech

65

Macrosomia

Large baby

66

Malposition

A cephalic presentation other than normal anterior position of the fetal head

67

Malpresentation

A presentation other than the vertex

68

Mauriceau-Smellie-Veit

A manoeuvre to deliver a breech, which involves jaw flexion and shoulder traction.

69

McRoberts Manoeuvere

A manoeuvre to rotate the angle of the symphysis pubis superiorly and release the impaction of the anterior shoulder in shoulder dystocia. The woman brings her knees up to her chest.

70

Neoplasia

Growth of new tissue

71

Nuchal fold

An increased thickness of fetal skin and fat at the back of the fetal neck. Subcutaneous fluid (nuchal translucency) cannot usually be visualised after 14 weeks.

72

Oligohydramnios

Abnormally low amount of amniotic fluid in pregnancy

73

Oliguria

The production of an abnormally small amount of urine

74

PaCO2

Measures the partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide. This dissolved CO2 has moved out of the cell and into the bloodstream. The measure of PaCO2 accurately reflects the alveolar ventilation.

75

PaO2

Measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. It reflects how the lung is functioning but does not measure tissue oxygenation.

76

Paronychia

An inflamed swelling of the nail folds; acute Paronychia is usually caused by infection with Staphylococcus aureus

77

Perinatal

Surrounding labour and the first 7 days of life

78

Placenta accreta

Abnormally adherent placenta into the muscle layer of the uterus

79

Placenta percreta

Abnormally adherent placenta through the muscle layer of the uterus

80

Placenta praevia

A condition in which some or all of the placenta is attached in the lower segment of the uterus

81

Polyhydramnios

An excessive amount of amniotic fluid in pregnancy

82

Porphyria

An inherited condition of abnormal red blood cell formation

83

Postpartum

After labour

84

Pre-eclampsia

A condition peculiar to pregnancy, which is characterised by hypertension, proteinuria and systemic dysfunction

85

Primary postpartum haemorrhage

A blood loss in excess of 500ml or any amount which adversely affects the condition of the mother within the first 24 hours of delivery

86

Progestogen

Synthetic progesterone used in hormonal contraception

87

Prostaglandins

Locally acting chemical compounds derived from fatty acids within cells. They ripen the cervix and cause the uterus to contract

88

Proteinuria

Protein in the urine

89

Pruritus

Itching

90

Ptyalism

Excessive salvation

91

Puerperal fever/pyrexia

A rise in temperature in the puerperium. This is poorly defined in the textbooks but is assumed to be based on the definition of pyrexia, which is a rise above the normal body temperature of 37.2 degrees Celsius. Where pyrexia is used as clinical sign of importance, the elevation in temperature is generally taken as being 38 degrees and above

92

Puerperal sepsis

Infection of the genital tract following childbirth; still a major cause of maternal death where it is undetected and/or untreated.

93

Puerperium

A period after childbirth where the uterus and other organs and structures that have been affected by the pregnancy are returning to their non-gravid state. Usually described as a period of up to 6-8 weeks.

94

Quickening

Recognition of fetal movements by the woman in early pregnancy

95

Retraction

Process by which the uterine muscle fibres shorten after a contraction. Unique to uterine muscle.

96

Rubin's manoeuvre

A rotational manoeuvre to relieve shoulder dystocia. Pressure is exerted over the fetal back to adduct and rotate the shoulders

97

Secondary postpartum haemorrhage

An "excessive" or "prolonged" vaginal blood loss which is usually defined as occurring from 24 hours to 6 weeks after the birth

98

Selective fetocide

The medical destruction of an abnormal twin fetus in a continuing pregnancy

99

Sheehan syndrome

A condition where sudden or prolonged shock leads to irreversible pituitary necrosis, characterised by amenorrhoea, genital atrophy and premature senility

100

Shoulder dystocia

Failure of the shoulders to transverse the pelvis spontaneously after delivery of the head. Incidence is around 0.3% of deliveries

101

Speculum (vaginal)

An instrument used to open the vagina

102

Subinvolution

The uterine size appears larger than anticipated for days post-partum, and may feel poorly contracted. Uterine tenderness may be present

103

Superfecundation

Conception of twins as a result of sexual intercourse with two different partners in the same menstrual cycle

104

Superfetation

Conception of twins as a result of two acts of sexual intercourse in different menstrual cycles

105

Symphysiotomy

A surgical incision to separate the symphysis pubis and enlarge the pelvis to aid delivery

106

Talipes

A complex foot deformity, affecting 1 per 1000 live births and more common in males. The affected foot is held in a fixed flexion and in-turned position. It can be differentiated from positional talipes because the deformity in true talipes cannot be passively corrected

107

Teratogen

An agent believed to cause congenital abnormalities eg. Thalidomide

108

Torsion

Twisting

109

Trizygotic

Formed from three separate zygotes

110

Uniovular

Monozygotic

111

Unstable lie

After 36 weeks gestation, a lie that varies between longitudinal and oblique or transverse is said to be unstable

112

Uterine involution

The physiological process that starts from the end of labour that results in a gradual reduction in the size of the uterus until it returns to its non-pregnant size and location in the pelvis

113

Vanishing twin syndrome

The reabsorption of one twin fetus early in pregnancy (usually before 12 weeks)

114

Bradycardia

An abnormally low pulse in an adult (less than 50 bpm)

115

Tachycardia

An abnormally high pulse in an adult (more than 100 bpm)

116

Vasa praevia

A rare occurrence in which umbilical cord vessels pass through the placental membranes and lie across the cervical os

117

Withdrawal bleed

Bleeding due to withdrawal of hormones

118

Wood's manoeuvre

A rotational or screw manoeuvre to relieve shoulder dystocia. Pressure is exerted on the fetal chest to rotate and abduct the shoulders

119

Zavanelli manoeuvre

Last choice of manoeuvre for shoulder dystocia. The head is returned to its pre-restitution position, then the head is flexed back into the vagina. Delivery is by caesarean section.

120

Zygosity

Describing the genetic make-up of children in a multiple birth

121

Atelectasis

The collapsing of the lung

122

Sulci

Deep grooves in the placenta which divide it into cotyledons (lobes)

123

Cotyledons

The lobes of the placenta which are divided by deep grooves (sulci) and contain the chorionic villi

124

Descent (mechanism of labour)

Movement of the fetal head into the pelvis.
Usually begins before the onset of labour.
Primigravid women: latter weeks of pregnancy
Multigravid women: usually not until labour begins

125

Flexion (mechanism of labour)

Fetal head flexes backwards caused by pressure exerted down the fetal axis
Results in smaller presenting diameters to negotiate the pelvis more easily
The occiput becomes the leading part

126

Internal rotation of the head (mechanisms of labour)

Contraction pushes the leading part down onto the pelvic floor
The resistance of this muscular diaphragm brings about rotation
As contraction fades, the pelvic floor rebounds causing the occiput to glide forwards.
Occiput rotates 1/8 of a circle and slips beneath the sub-pubic arch and crowning occurs

127

Extension (mechanisms of labour)

Once crowning has occurred, the fetal head extends, pivoting on the sub occipital region around the pubic bone
This releases the sinciput, face and chin which sweep the perineum and are then born by a movement of extension

128

Restitution (mechanisms of labour)

The twist in the neck of the fetus which resulted from internal rotation is now corrected by a slight untwisting movement
Rotates 1/8 back in the direction it originally twisted from

129

Internal rotation of the shoulders (mechanisms of labour)

Similar to rotation of the head
Rotates to lie in the widest diameter of the pelvic outlet
Anterior shoulder reaches the levator ani muscle first and therefore rotates anterior lay to lie under the symphysis pubis
Occurs in the same direction of restitution
Occiput of the fetal head now lies laterally

130

Lateral flexion (mechanisms of labour)

Anterior shoulder slips beneath the sub-pubic arch and the posterior shoulder passes over the perineum.
The remainder of the body is born by lateral flexion as the spine bends sideways through the curved birth canal