Flashcards in Terminology Deck (130):
Premature separation of a normally situated placenta
One twin presents without a well-defined cardiac structure and is kept alive through the placental circulation of the viable twin
Absence of menstrual periods
Amniotic fluid embolism
The escape of amniotic fluid through the wall of the uterus or placental site into the maternal circulation, triggering life-threatening anaphylactic shock in the mother
Artificial rupture of the amniotic sac
Anterior obliquity of the uterus
Altered uterine axis. The uterus leans forward due to poor maternal abdominal muscles and a pendulous abdomen
Producing no urine
Closure or absence of a usual opening or canal
Augmentation of labour
Intervention to correct slow progress in labour
An exaggerated retraction ring seen as an oblique ridge above the symphysis pubis between the upper and lower uterine segments, which is a sign of obstructed labor
A structural abnormality of the uterus
Rating system to assess suitability of the cervix for induction of labour
A method of breech delivery involving traction to prevent the neck from bending backwards
Measurement of the fetal heart rate and contractions on a machine that is able to provide a paper print of the information it records
Disparity between the size of the woman's pelvis and the fetal head
A non-absorbable suture inserted to keep the cervix closed
Physiological response by cervical cells to hormonal changes in pregnancy. Cells proliferate and cause the cervix to appear eroded
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN)
Progressive and abnormal growth of cervical cells
Inflammation of the cervix
(Bilateral) membranous or bony obstruction of the nares; the baby is blue when sleeping and pink when crying
Visualisation of the cervix using a colposcope
Couvelaire uterus (uterine apoplexy)
Bruising and oedema of uterine tissue seen in placental abruption, when leaking blood is forced between muscle fibres because the margins of the placenta are still attached to the uterus
Diastasis symphysis pubis
A painful condition in which there is an abnormal relaxation of the ligaments supporting the pubic joint
Twins who have developed in their own separate chorionic sacs
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
A condition secondary to a primary complication where there is appropriate blood clotting in the blood vessels, followed by an inability of the blood to clot appropriately when all the clotting factors have been used up
Formed from two separate zygotes
The first fertile day of the cycle is determined by a calculation based upon the earliest previous temperature shift. This is an effective double-check method to identify the onset of the fertile phase
Painful or difficult intercourse experienced by the woman
Bright appearances of bowel, equivalent to the brightness of bone. Also associated with intra-amniotic bleeding and fetal swallowing of blood stained liquor
Echogenic foci in the heart
Bright echoes from calcium deposits in the fetal heart, often the left ventricle. These do not affect cardiac function
An abnormally situated pregnancy, most commonly in a Fallopian tube
Relating to the internal canal of the cervix
A vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose, which covers lacrimal caruncle. Can be common in Asian babies but may indicate Down syndrome in other ethnic groups
Paralysis of the arm due to the damage to cervical nerve roots five and six of the brachial plexus
Reddening of the skin
The process by which erythrocytes (red blood cells) are formed. After the 10th week of gestation, erythropoiesis rises and seems to be involved in red cell production in the bone marrow during the third trimester
External cephalic version (ECV)
The use of external manipulation on the pregnant woman's abdomen to convert a breech to a cephalic presentation
The proportion of affected pregnancies that would not be identified as high-risk. Tests with a high false-negative rate have low sensitivity.
The proportion of unaffected pregnancies with a high-risk classification. Tests with a high false-positive rate have low specificity.
Surge of oxytocin resulting in increased contractions, due to stimulation of the cervix and the upper portion of the vagina.
The reduction in the number of viable fetuses/embryos in a multiple (usually higher multiple) pregnancy by medical intervention
Veto fetal transfusion syndrome (twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS))
Condition in which blood from one monozygotic twin fetus transfuses into the other via blood vessels in the placenta
Parts of a fetus may be lodged within another fetus. This can only happen in monozygotic twins.
A fetus that dies in the second trimester of the pregnancy and becomes compressed and parchment-like.
Firm, benign tumour of muscular and fibrous tissue
Dizygotic (non-identical) twins
The distance between the top part of the uterus (fundus) and the top of the symphysis pubis (the junction between the pubic bones). Measurement of this is undertaken to assess the increasing size of the uterus antenatally and decreasing size postnatally.
Blood in the urine
The arrest of bleeding
A condition of pregnancy characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets
An autoimmune disease precipitated by pregnancy and characterised by an erythematous rash and blisters
Pain is felt in the calf when the foot is pulled upwards. This is indicative of a venous thrombosis and further investigations should be undertaken to confirm or exclude this.
A gross malformation of the trophoblast in which the chorionic villi proliferate and become vascular
An abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
Protracted or excessive vomiting in pregnancy
Overgrowth of tissue
Reduced circulating blood volume due to external loss of body fluids or to loss of fluid into the tissues.
Lack of oxygen
An instrument used to access the uterus via the vagina
Within the epithelium or among epithelial cells
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP)
An idiopathic condition of abnormal liver function
A method of contraception based upon an algorithm of lactation, amenorrhoea and a 6 month time period
Soft downy hair, which covers the fetus in utero and occasionally the neonate. It appears at around 20 weeks gestation and covers the face and most of the body. It disappears by 40 weeks gestation.
A manoeuvre for the delivery of shoulders and extended arms in a breech
A cephalic presentation other than normal anterior position of the fetal head
A presentation other than the vertex
A manoeuvre to deliver a breech, which involves jaw flexion and shoulder traction.
A manoeuvre to rotate the angle of the symphysis pubis superiorly and release the impaction of the anterior shoulder in shoulder dystocia. The woman brings her knees up to her chest.
Growth of new tissue
An increased thickness of fetal skin and fat at the back of the fetal neck. Subcutaneous fluid (nuchal translucency) cannot usually be visualised after 14 weeks.
Abnormally low amount of amniotic fluid in pregnancy
The production of an abnormally small amount of urine
Measures the partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide. This dissolved CO2 has moved out of the cell and into the bloodstream. The measure of PaCO2 accurately reflects the alveolar ventilation.
Measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood. It reflects how the lung is functioning but does not measure tissue oxygenation.
An inflamed swelling of the nail folds; acute Paronychia is usually caused by infection with Staphylococcus aureus
Surrounding labour and the first 7 days of life
Abnormally adherent placenta into the muscle layer of the uterus
Abnormally adherent placenta through the muscle layer of the uterus
A condition in which some or all of the placenta is attached in the lower segment of the uterus
An excessive amount of amniotic fluid in pregnancy
An inherited condition of abnormal red blood cell formation
A condition peculiar to pregnancy, which is characterised by hypertension, proteinuria and systemic dysfunction
Primary postpartum haemorrhage
A blood loss in excess of 500ml or any amount which adversely affects the condition of the mother within the first 24 hours of delivery
Synthetic progesterone used in hormonal contraception
Locally acting chemical compounds derived from fatty acids within cells. They ripen the cervix and cause the uterus to contract
Protein in the urine
A rise in temperature in the puerperium. This is poorly defined in the textbooks but is assumed to be based on the definition of pyrexia, which is a rise above the normal body temperature of 37.2 degrees Celsius. Where pyrexia is used as clinical sign of importance, the elevation in temperature is generally taken as being 38 degrees and above
Infection of the genital tract following childbirth; still a major cause of maternal death where it is undetected and/or untreated.
A period after childbirth where the uterus and other organs and structures that have been affected by the pregnancy are returning to their non-gravid state. Usually described as a period of up to 6-8 weeks.
Recognition of fetal movements by the woman in early pregnancy
Process by which the uterine muscle fibres shorten after a contraction. Unique to uterine muscle.
A rotational manoeuvre to relieve shoulder dystocia. Pressure is exerted over the fetal back to adduct and rotate the shoulders
Secondary postpartum haemorrhage
An "excessive" or "prolonged" vaginal blood loss which is usually defined as occurring from 24 hours to 6 weeks after the birth
The medical destruction of an abnormal twin fetus in a continuing pregnancy
A condition where sudden or prolonged shock leads to irreversible pituitary necrosis, characterised by amenorrhoea, genital atrophy and premature senility
Failure of the shoulders to transverse the pelvis spontaneously after delivery of the head. Incidence is around 0.3% of deliveries
An instrument used to open the vagina
The uterine size appears larger than anticipated for days post-partum, and may feel poorly contracted. Uterine tenderness may be present
Conception of twins as a result of sexual intercourse with two different partners in the same menstrual cycle
Conception of twins as a result of two acts of sexual intercourse in different menstrual cycles
A surgical incision to separate the symphysis pubis and enlarge the pelvis to aid delivery
A complex foot deformity, affecting 1 per 1000 live births and more common in males. The affected foot is held in a fixed flexion and in-turned position. It can be differentiated from positional talipes because the deformity in true talipes cannot be passively corrected
An agent believed to cause congenital abnormalities eg. Thalidomide
Formed from three separate zygotes
After 36 weeks gestation, a lie that varies between longitudinal and oblique or transverse is said to be unstable
The physiological process that starts from the end of labour that results in a gradual reduction in the size of the uterus until it returns to its non-pregnant size and location in the pelvis
Vanishing twin syndrome
The reabsorption of one twin fetus early in pregnancy (usually before 12 weeks)
An abnormally low pulse in an adult (less than 50 bpm)
An abnormally high pulse in an adult (more than 100 bpm)
A rare occurrence in which umbilical cord vessels pass through the placental membranes and lie across the cervical os
Bleeding due to withdrawal of hormones
A rotational or screw manoeuvre to relieve shoulder dystocia. Pressure is exerted on the fetal chest to rotate and abduct the shoulders
Last choice of manoeuvre for shoulder dystocia. The head is returned to its pre-restitution position, then the head is flexed back into the vagina. Delivery is by caesarean section.
Describing the genetic make-up of children in a multiple birth
The collapsing of the lung
Deep grooves in the placenta which divide it into cotyledons (lobes)
The lobes of the placenta which are divided by deep grooves (sulci) and contain the chorionic villi
Descent (mechanism of labour)
Movement of the fetal head into the pelvis.
Usually begins before the onset of labour.
Primigravid women: latter weeks of pregnancy
Multigravid women: usually not until labour begins
Flexion (mechanism of labour)
Fetal head flexes backwards caused by pressure exerted down the fetal axis
Results in smaller presenting diameters to negotiate the pelvis more easily
The occiput becomes the leading part
Internal rotation of the head (mechanisms of labour)
Contraction pushes the leading part down onto the pelvic floor
The resistance of this muscular diaphragm brings about rotation
As contraction fades, the pelvic floor rebounds causing the occiput to glide forwards.
Occiput rotates 1/8 of a circle and slips beneath the sub-pubic arch and crowning occurs
Extension (mechanisms of labour)
Once crowning has occurred, the fetal head extends, pivoting on the sub occipital region around the pubic bone
This releases the sinciput, face and chin which sweep the perineum and are then born by a movement of extension
Restitution (mechanisms of labour)
The twist in the neck of the fetus which resulted from internal rotation is now corrected by a slight untwisting movement
Rotates 1/8 back in the direction it originally twisted from
Internal rotation of the shoulders (mechanisms of labour)
Similar to rotation of the head
Rotates to lie in the widest diameter of the pelvic outlet
Anterior shoulder reaches the levator ani muscle first and therefore rotates anterior lay to lie under the symphysis pubis
Occurs in the same direction of restitution
Occiput of the fetal head now lies laterally