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Flashcards in Plasmodium & Malaria Deck (12)
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What transmits malaria

FEMALE anopheles mosquito's depositing eggs in stagnating water, saliva contains anticoagulant to prevent clotting


Name the 5 types of malaria and what they are

Falciparum - subtertiana
Ovale - tertiana
Vivax - tertiana
Malaria - quartana
Knowles - quotidiana


Describe the life cycle of malaria

1) Takes a blood meal injecting sporozoites
2) Enters liver through kupffer cells into hepatocyte where they replicate
3) schizont divides and ruptures (kills hepatocyte)
4) enters blood stream, merozoites infect RBC's
5)Trophozoite grows in cell and doesn't divide or goes through erythrotic cycle
6) small number become sexually active - gametocyte
7) Mosquito takes a blood meal, gametocytes
8) enters sporogonic cycle, microgamete enters macrogamete
9) Ookinete, oocyst ruptures releasing sporozoites


Describe these symptoms
1) Liver stage
2) Anaemia
3) Splenomegaly
4) Jaundice

1) no symptoms in liver cells
2) losing red blood cells
3) dead red blood cells are stored in spleen
4) impaired liver function


What causes malaria fever

host cytokines (IL-6) released in response to pyrogens
tertiana - 48
quartana - 72
subtertiana - sort of 48


How does malaria cause
1) Hypoglycaemia
2) Anaemia
3) Acidosis

1) Cytokine-induced impairment of gluconeogenesis in the liver and glucose consumption by parasite.
2) Destruction of RBCs when schizonts rupture, haemolysis and cytokines affect erythropoiesis in bone marrow
3) Tissue anoxia leads to anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid


Describe these terms
1) recrudescence
2) reinfection
3) relapse

1) malaria is caused by a small number of permitting parasites
2) new inoculation of parasites
3) hypnozoites in liver are reactivated


What are the effects of a HIV/Malaria Co-infection

CD4+ counts progressively decrease so become more susceptible to malaria, higher parasitaemia and viral load


What is the duffy factor

Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC/CD234)
Glycoprotein on the surface of blood cells used by vivid merozoites for invasion


What is sickle cell disease

single point mutation (GAG-GTG) resulting in one amino acid B globulin molecule causing b-globulin to form long stacks distorting shape of RBC


What is thalassaemia

Genetic disorder affecting haemoglobin synthesis, one or two genes on chromosome 16 are affected


What is the role of Glucose - 6 - phosphate DH

Rte limiting enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway, needed for regeneration of NADPH vital for reduction of glutathione (anti-oxidant) Eryptosis
x-chromosome linked