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Flashcards in Viral Hepatitis Deck (14)
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1

What characterises Cirrhosis
What is a common complication?

Fibrosis (collagenous scars) and regenerative nodules (attempts at repair)
Ascites (fluid retention in abdominal cavity)

2

Which are enveloped and naked and what difference does this make?

Naked - A&E - acute
enveloped - BCD,G - chronic and persistent

3

What type of genome does each type of hepatitis have?

A - ss+RNA (4)
B - dsDNA (7)
C - ss+RNA (4)
D - ss-RNA (5)
E - ss+RNA (4)

4

Hepatitis A
1) What can it result in?
2) How is it spread
3) Relevance of HAV infection?

1) Fulminant hepatitis and death
2) oral-foetal route, poor hygiene
3) induces lifelong protection, don't get it twice

5

Hepatitis B
1) How long is it in the body?
2) What can it cause?
3) How is it transmitted?

1) 1-3 months
2) liver disease, cirrhosis, liver cancer
3) STI, blood-to-blood contact, perinatal transmission

6

Hepatitis C
1) How is it transmitted?
2) What shape is it?
3) How man genotypes is there?
4) What is the current treatment?
5) How do boceprevir and telaprevir work
6) How does sofosbuvir

1) Blood-to-blood contact or other bodily fluids
2) two virus-encoded membrane proteins (E1/E2) in addition to capsid protein
3) 11 different genotypes
4) Ribavirin, oral nucleoside analogue and pegylated IFN alpha. Teratogenic. HCV genotype affects treatment, 2/3 3X times more likely to respond
5) Target HCV protease (genotype 1)
6) HCV polymerase, genotypes 2/3 with ribavirin

7

Hepatitis D
1)What is it?
2) What is the role of the delta antigen

1) Defective satellite virus, requires co-infection with HBV, provides antigens needed for cell attachment and infection.
2) stabilises RNA genome, uses hepatitis B surface antigen as its own virion coat

8

What is the difference between passive and active immunisation?

Passive - injection of pathogen-specific pooled human immunoglobulins
Active - post-exposure prophylaxis

9

What are live attenuated vaccines?

grown in culture, viruses with low virulence selected and then reproduced in large quantities.
Immune response similar to natural but doesn't cause full illness.

10

What are inactivated vaccines?

Cultured and inactivated with formaldehyde, fewer side effects than live but immune response is less vigorous

11

What are subunit vaccines?

surface antigens produced by recombinant DNA technologies, can be given as a single protein by itself but may contain 20+. Pathogen not present so safest approach, no risk to immunocompromised patients but weaker protection.

12

HepA vaccine
1) What does it protect against
2) What does it consist of

1) protects against all 7 strains
2) inactivated whole virus propagated in MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cell line

13

Name the 3 types of HAV vaccine

Monovalent - protects against HepA
Combined A&B
Combine A&Typhoid

14

1)What is the HBV vaccine made of?
2) How many doses?

1) subunit vaccine consisting of surface antigen absorbed into aluminium hydroxide, made from yeast cells
2) 3 doses with or without 4th booster