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1

AIED =

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

2

What is autoimmune inner ear disease (3)

Progressive hearing loss and/or dizziness
Reduced hearing w/tinnitus
Attacks of dizziness (normal blood tests for antibodies)

3

What does autoimmune inner ear disease resemble

Meniere's disease

4

Affects this many of the X million Americans with hearing loss

<1%, 28 million

5

Causes of autoimmune inner ear disease (5)

Antibodies/immune cells damage inner ear
bystander damage
cross-reactions
intolerance
genetic factors

6

What causes bystander damage

cytokines provoke extra immune reactions

7

What causes cross reactions

antibodies cause accidental damage
ear shares common antigens with potential pathogens

8

What causes intolerance

ear may only be a partially immune privileged locus

9

What effect do genetic factors have on AIED

possible increased susceptibility to hearing disorders

10

Signs and symptoms of AIED (4)

Hearing loss in one ear and rapid progression to second ear (can progress slowly)
Fullness in the ear
vertigo
tinnitus, hissing, or roaring sound

11

What is AIED often mistaken for

Otitis media

12

What are treatments for AIED (5)

Steroids like prednisone ore dexamethasone (short-term)
Cytotoxic agents like cytoxan or methotrexate (short-term)
Plasmapheresis
cochlear implant
cell and gene therapy

13

Exteroceptors

receptors that recieve stimuli from outside the body

14

interoceptors

receptors that receive stimuli from inside the body
Detect changes within the body

15

Where are interoceptors located

deep within muscles, tendons, and other structures

16

Exteroceptors are located

on the surface of the body (usually)

17

Our senses are comprised of these types of receptors

exteroceptors

18

Weber's law states this

the size of the just noticeable difference, dI, is a constant proportion of the original stimulus, I

19

Weber's fraction

The ratio of intensity difference to the initial weight intensity

20

Just noticeable difference or intensity difference is

the amount of stimuli needed to have a noticeable difference in our current stimulation state.

21

What is referred pain

pain that originates in one area of the body, but is perceived in another (ex. Heart attack)

22

What is done for the weber test (hearing)

The handle tip of a struck tuning fork is placed against the middle of the subjects forehead to determine if one ear is more deaf than the other

23

When doing the weber test for hearing what is the result if one ear hears the fork better than the other: sensorineural

The sound will be heard better in the normal ear because neural activity is essential for hearing

24

When doing the weber test for hearing what is the result if one ear hears the fork better than the other: conductive

The ear that hears the fork louder is the ear that is more deaf, due to the good ear having the sound masked by environmental noise

25

Conduction deafness can be simulated by doing this simple thing

plugging one ear with cotton

26

The Rinne test compares this

air conduction of sound with bone conduction of sound

27

The weber test for hearing should be conducted in a room with this level of noise

normal room noise

28

The Rinne test for hearing should be conducted in a room with this level of noise

A quiet room

29

What is done for the Rinne test (hearing)

Place the end of the handle of a struck tuning fork on the mastoid process. As soon as the sound is no longer audible through the bone hold the fork about 1 inch from the ear. The subject should be able to hear again.

30

If the should is heard through the bone longer the person has this type of deafness

conduction deafness