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Flashcards in Project Quality Management Deck (52):

What is Quality?

Quality as a delivered performance or result is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements


What is grade?

Grade as a design intent is a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics


What is Plan Quality Management?

The process of identifying quality requirements/standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements/standards.


Perform Quality Assurance

The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used


Control Quality

The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes



A measure of exactness



An assessment of correctness


Customer satisfaction

Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing requirements so that customer expectations are met


Prevention over inspection

Quality should be planned designed and built into the project management or the project deliverables


Continuous improvement

The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle is the basis for quality improvement


Management responsibility

Success requires the participation of all members of the project team however management retains within its responsibility for quality related responsibility to provide suitable resources at adequate capacity


Cost of quality (COQ)

Includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements. Failure cost can be internal or extern all and they are also called the cost of poor quality.

Quality assurance falls under the conformance work category.


Plan Quality Management Inputs

Project management plan
Stakeholder register
Risk register
Requirements documentation
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets


Plan Quality Management Tools/Techniques

Cost-benefit analysis
Cost of quality
Seven basic quality tools
Design of experiments
Statistical sampling
Additional quality planning tools


Plan Quality Management Outputs

Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Quality metrics
Quality checklists
Project document updates


Perform Quality Assurance Inputs

Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Quality metrics
Quality control measurements
Project documents


Perform Quality Assurance Tools/Techniques

Quality management and control tools
Quality audits
Process analysis


Perform Quality Assurance Outputs

Change requests
Project management plan updates
Project document updates
Organizational process assets updates


Control Quality Inputs

Project management plan
Quality metrics
Quality checklists
Work performance data
Approve change request
Project documents
Organizational process assets


Control Quality Tools/Techniques

Seven basic quality tools
Statistical sampling
Approved change request review


Control Quality Outputs

Quality control measurements
Validated changes
Verified deliverables
Work performance information
Change requests
Project management plan updates
Project document updates
Organizational process assets updates


Cost of conformance

Includes prevention costs in appraisal costs. This is money spent during the project to avoid failures.


Cost of nonconformance

This includes internal failure costs and external failure costs. This is money spent during and after the project because of failures.


Seven Basic Quality Tools

Cause-and-effect diagrams - aka fish bone diagrams. Helps to trace back to the root cause.
Flowcharts - aka process maps. Display the sequence of steps and branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one more inputs into outputs
Check sheets - aka tally sheets. Used to organize fax to facilitate collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. Especially useful for gathering attributes data during inspections to identify defects.
Pareto diagrams. | Charts that are used to identify the vital sources that are responsible for causing most of the problems effects.
Histograms. Used to describe the central tendency dispersion and shape of a statistical distribution
Control charts. Used to determine whether or not a process a stable or has predictable performance.
Scatter diagrams aka correlation charts. Used to explain the change in the dependent variable in relationship to a change observed in the corresponding independent variable.



Involves comparing actual plant project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices


Design of experiments

Statistical method for identifying which factors may implement specific variables of a product or process under development or in production


Statistical sampling

Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection


Additional quality planning tools

Force Field analysis
Nominal group technique
Quality management and control tools


Quality Management Plan

Part of the project management plan that describes how the organization's quality policies will be implemented and how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements for the project


Process improvement plan

Part of the project management plan
Details the steps for analyzing project management and product development processes to identify activities that enhance the value

Process boundaries
Process configuration
Process metrics
Targets for improved performance


Quality metrics

Specifically describe a project or product attributes and how the control quality process will Measure it

Examples include on-time performance, cost control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage


Quality checklists

Structured tool, usually component specific, cues to verify that a set of required steps has been performed


Project document updates from Plan Quality Management

Include but are not limited to
Stakeholder register
Responsibility assignment matrix
WBS and WBS dictionary


Quality Control Measurements

The results of control quality activities. There used to analyze and about with the quality of the processes of the project against the standards of the performing organization or the requirements for specified.


Quality management and control tools

Affinity diagrams. Similar to mind mapping, these are used to generate ideas that can be linked to formally organized patterns of thought about a problem.
Process decision program charts (PDPC). Used understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal. Useful for contingency planning.
Interrelationship diagraphs. Adaptation of relationship diagrams. They provide a process for creative problem-solving and moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships are up to 50 relevant items.
Tree diagrams-aka systematic diagrams. Maybe used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS, and OBS. Useful and visualizing the parent to child relationships in any decomposition hierarchy that uses a systematic set of rules to find a nesting relationship.
Prioritization matrices. Identify key issues and suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation.
Activity network diagrams. These include AOA (activity on arrow) and AON (activity on node). Used for PERT, CPM, and PDM
Matrix diagrams. Used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. Shows strength of relationships between factors causes and objectives.


Quality audits

A structured independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, procedures, and processes.


Process Analysis

Follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.


Project document updates from Perform Quality Management

Include but are not limited to
Quality audit reports
Training plans
Process documentation



Keeping errors out of the process



Keeping errors out of the hands of the customer


Attribute sampling

The result either conforms or does not conform


Variables sampling

The result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity



Specified range of acceptable results


Control limits

Identify the boundaries of common variation in a statistically stable process or process performance



The examination of the work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards.


Project document updates from Perform Quality Control

Include but are not limited to
Quality standards
Quality audit reports and change logs supported with corrective action plans
Training plans and assessments of effectiveness
Process documentation, such as information obtained using the seven basic quality tools or the quality management and control tools


Aspects of Project Quality

Defining quality policies
Setting quality objectives
Assigning roles and responsibilities
Implementing a quality management system
Monitoring and improving process effectiveness


Name the plan quality management processes

Plan quality management
Perform quality assurance
Control quality


Plan quality management key benefit

Provides guidance and direction and how quality will be managed invalidated throughout the project


What is fitness for use

Making sure that the product to build has the best design possible to set the customers needs.

Joseph Juran


What is conformance to requirements

The core of those customer satisfaction and fitness for use.

Philip Crosby


What is plan do check act

Making small improvements and measuring how much benefit they make before you change your process to include them

W.Edwards Deming