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1

father of psychology. Established first psychology lab. Participants would report their sensations, which were thought to be the key to analyzing the structure of the mind

Wilhelm Wundt

2

Sensations and perceptions make up our conscious experiences

structuralism

3

thought the focus should be on the function of the mind and how we adapt to our changing environments, rather than the structure of consciousness

William James

4

asked whats the function of consciousness

functionalism

5

thought neither of the two previous approaches were comprehensive.

Max Wertheimer

6

The whole is more than the sum of its parts (especially in regards to perception)

gestalt approach

7

said “give me a dozen healthy infants..I will train them to become any type of specialist I select-doctor, lawyer, artist..”

John Watson

8

emphasizes the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors, it was the dominant force in psychology from 1920s-1960s

behaviorism

9

the systematic, scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

10

what are the four goals of psychology

i) Describe different ways in which organisms behave
i) Explain the causes of behavior
ii) Predict how organisms behave in certain situations
iii) Control an organisms behaviors

11

how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, and emotions. (viewing CT scans of two twins, one with schizophrenia one without it, you can see the difference in the brain)

biological approach

12

how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel.

cognitive approach

13

studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward of punish these behaviors.

behavioral approach

14

Stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life.

psychoanalytic approach

15

Emphasizes that each individual has a great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment.

humanistic approach

16

Studies the influence of social and cultural factors on psychological and behavioral functioning

sociocultural approach

17

studies how evolutionary ideas, such as natural selection and adaptation, explain human behaviors and mental processes

evolutionary approach

18

Studies how the biological, psychological, and social influences explain human health and illness

bio psychosocial approach

19

a physician who diagnoses physical and neurological causes of abnormal behavior and treats these behaviors, often with prescription drugs. (M.D. or D.O.)

psychiatrist

20

has spent four to five years in graduate education and has earned a doctorate in psychology. Clinical vs experimental (Ph.D, Psy.D, or Ed.D.)

psychologist

21

includes the assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems, such as grief, anxiety, or stress (ask questions like which type of therapy is most effective for this type of disorder? How do people develop phobias?)

clinical/counseling

22

examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a persons entire life (why do some babies cry more than others? What happens to our sex drive as we age?)

developmental

23

involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, aggression, etc. (how does being in a group affect one’s behavior? How can people make a good impression on others?)

social

24

includes the areas of sensation, perception, learning, motivation, etc. (why does an animal press a bar to obtain food? Can learning principles he used to discipline children?)

experimental

25

: involves research on the physical and chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions and how our nervous system interacts with the environment. (how do brain cells change during alzheimer’s disease? How do genes affect your intelligence?)

biological

26

: focuses on measurement of peoples abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors. (what do college entrance tests show? What career best fits my abilities?)

psychometrics

27

focuses on how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior. (what is the best way to learn new information? Do men and women think differently?)

cognitive

28

examines the relationships of people and their work environments. (how can we increase the productivity of workers? How can we select employees who will be successful?)

industrial/organizational

29

a) A multistep technique of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

scientific method

30

surveys and polls

descriptive research