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Flashcards in Psych 101---1 Deck (164):
1

father of psychology. Established first psychology lab. Participants would report their sensations, which were thought to be the key to analyzing the structure of the mind

Wilhelm Wundt

2

Sensations and perceptions make up our conscious experiences

structuralism

3

thought the focus should be on the function of the mind and how we adapt to our changing environments, rather than the structure of consciousness

William James

4

asked whats the function of consciousness

functionalism

5

thought neither of the two previous approaches were comprehensive.

Max Wertheimer

6

The whole is more than the sum of its parts (especially in regards to perception)

gestalt approach

7

said “give me a dozen healthy infants..I will train them to become any type of specialist I select-doctor, lawyer, artist..”

John Watson

8

emphasizes the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors, it was the dominant force in psychology from 1920s-1960s

behaviorism

9

the systematic, scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

10

what are the four goals of psychology

i) Describe different ways in which organisms behave
i) Explain the causes of behavior
ii) Predict how organisms behave in certain situations
iii) Control an organisms behaviors

11

how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, and emotions. (viewing CT scans of two twins, one with schizophrenia one without it, you can see the difference in the brain)

biological approach

12

how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel.

cognitive approach

13

studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward of punish these behaviors.

behavioral approach

14

Stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life.

psychoanalytic approach

15

Emphasizes that each individual has a great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment.

humanistic approach

16

Studies the influence of social and cultural factors on psychological and behavioral functioning

sociocultural approach

17

studies how evolutionary ideas, such as natural selection and adaptation, explain human behaviors and mental processes

evolutionary approach

18

Studies how the biological, psychological, and social influences explain human health and illness

bio psychosocial approach

19

a physician who diagnoses physical and neurological causes of abnormal behavior and treats these behaviors, often with prescription drugs. (M.D. or D.O.)

psychiatrist

20

has spent four to five years in graduate education and has earned a doctorate in psychology. Clinical vs experimental (Ph.D, Psy.D, or Ed.D.)

psychologist

21

includes the assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems, such as grief, anxiety, or stress (ask questions like which type of therapy is most effective for this type of disorder? How do people develop phobias?)

clinical/counseling

22

examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a persons entire life (why do some babies cry more than others? What happens to our sex drive as we age?)

developmental

23

involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, aggression, etc. (how does being in a group affect one’s behavior? How can people make a good impression on others?)

social

24

includes the areas of sensation, perception, learning, motivation, etc. (why does an animal press a bar to obtain food? Can learning principles he used to discipline children?)

experimental

25

: involves research on the physical and chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions and how our nervous system interacts with the environment. (how do brain cells change during alzheimer’s disease? How do genes affect your intelligence?)

biological

26

: focuses on measurement of peoples abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors. (what do college entrance tests show? What career best fits my abilities?)

psychometrics

27

focuses on how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior. (what is the best way to learn new information? Do men and women think differently?)

cognitive

28

examines the relationships of people and their work environments. (how can we increase the productivity of workers? How can we select employees who will be successful?)

industrial/organizational

29

a) A multistep technique of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

scientific method

30

surveys and polls

descriptive research

31

questions that allow respondents to answer in whatever way they see fit. Ex: what are comments about this professor?

open ended questions

32

people give their opinion by picking the best of two or more options. (likert scale: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree)

forced choice questions

33

when we watch, and systematically record what a person or think is doing. Can be bad because your bias can affect your interpretation of what you see

observational research

34

when people change their behavior when they know they’re being watched

reactivity

35

doing an in depth research on a single person

case study

36

a topic that deals with the magnitude and direction of relationships, primarily concerned with whether or not a relationship exists between two variables.

correlation research

37

manipulate at least one variable and measure another

experimental research

38

the variable we manipulate, the one that receives change

independent variable

39

the measured variable

dependent variable

40

the variable that an experimenter holds constant on purpose

control variable

41

in 1932, the US public health service began studying the effects of untreated syphilis in poor, African American males. The researchers wanted to better understand the progression of the disease, (since there was no “real” cure at the time) until the participants had died. The study lasted 40 years, the researchers made a series of abysmal ethical decisions:
i) The men were told that they were being treated
ii) The men who did not have syphilis-and then contracted it-were not told that they had the disease
iii) The men never received any beneficial treatment

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study

42

Milgram ran a series of experiments on obedience to authority that was very unethical

the mil gram obedience study

43

contained 3 principles for conducting research with human participants:
i) Respect for persons: informed consent
ii) Beneficence: can’t harm your participants, and have to take steps to insure your participants are not harmed
iii) Justice: is it worth it to harm your participants? IRB

the belmont report

44

900 billion: support cells, they insulate, feed and guide growth

glial cells

45

send and receive electrical signals

neurons

46

provides fuel, manufactures chemicals, and maintains the working order of the entire neuron

cell body

47

receive signals from other neurons, muscles, or sensory organs and pass these signals to the cell body

dendrites

48

carries signals away from the cell body to neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles

axons

49

insulates the axon and prevents interference from other electrical signals

myelin sheath

50

contain chemicals called neurotransmitters which are used to communicate with neighboring cells

axon terminal (terminal bulbs)

51

small space between the axon terminal and the adjacent body organ, muscle, or cell body

synapse

52

brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

53

bundles of axons and dendrites that come from the spinal cord

nerves

54

nerves

peripheral nervous system

55

the axon has a charge (or potential)

resting state

56

an electric current that is generated by the influx of sodium ions inside the axon

action potential

57

a series of action potentials that happen segment by segment down the axon, is created.

nerve impulse

58

release their transmitters which communicate with the neighboring organs, muscles, or cell bodies and either inhibit of exile their function

terminal bulbs

59

ii) Chemical messenger that carries information between nerves and body organs, such as muscles and heart

transmitters

60

a special class of transmitters that are made in the brain, used to communicate between neurons during mental or physical activity.

neurotransmitters

61

glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, gamma-amino butyric acid(gaba), acetylcholine, norepinephrine

common neurotransmitters

62

similar to neurotransmitters, but smaller
a) Used to communicate between neurons during mental of physical activity

neuropeptides

63

naturally occurring chemical released in response to paths or series

endorphin

64

an unlearned, involuntary reaction to know stimulus

reflex

65

is a process through which neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse by being transported back into the end bulbs. Dopamine remains in the synapse and produces a feeling of euphoria

reuptake

66

enters the bloodstream, reaches the muscles, and blocks the receptors on muscles. When the receptors are blocked, the muscles become paralyzed

curare

67

chemical keys are similar to naturally occurring endorphins. Laughter and Hallucinations

salvias

68

i) Accidental errors in genetic instructions that lead to a change

genetic mutations

69

i) The genes that will help an organism survive and reproduce will continue in a species, while the genes that do not, will not

natural selection

70

studies how evolutionary ideas such as adaptation and natural selection explain human behaviors and mental processes

the evolutionary approach

71

brain and spinal cord (both made up of neurons, bundles of axons, and dendrites) main function of those is to send and receive messages

central nervous system

72

regulates heart rate, blood pressure, hormones

autonomic nervous system

73

: increases physiological arousal and prepares the body for action

sympathetic nervous system

74

returns the body to a relaxed state

parasympathetic nervous system

75

A network of nerves that connect either to sensory receptors or to muscles that you can move voluntarily

somatic nervous system

76

very well developed in humans
i) Largest part of the brain
ii) Left and right hemispheres; connected by the corpus callosum
iii) Learning and memory, speaking and language, emotion, planning, decision making

forebrain

77

reward/pleasure center
i) Awesome
ii) Relays visual and auditory information

midbrain

78

evolutionarily primitive
i) Has remained fairly constant throughout evolution
ii) Contains 3 major parts: pons (regulates sleep), medulla (regulates heart rate and breathing), cerebellum (controls motor function)

hindbrain

79

interpreting emotions, socially normal, healthy personality, decision making, planning, reasoning...executive functions. Also contains the motor cortex, which is involved in all voluntary motor movements. (motor homunculus)

frontal lobe

80

processing sensory information from body parts including touching, feeling temperature, pain and attending to

parietal lobe

81

processes information about touch, the location of limbs, pain, temperature

somatosensory cortex

82

involved in hearing, speaking coherently, and understanding written and spoken word: contains the primary auditory cortex and the auditory association area: receives signals from the ear and transforms the sounds into recognizable auditory information

temporal lobe

83

necessary for speaking in coherent sentences and understanding speech

wernicke's area

84

used for combing sounds into words and arranging words into sentences

broca's area

85

a disturbance of comprehension or expression of language

aphasia

86

involved in processing visual information including seeing colors and recognizing objects, animals, and people. Contains the primary visual cortex and the visual association area. Receives signals from the eyes, transforms them into basic sensations such as color, light, texture...then transforms the sensations into meaningful perceptions

occipital lobe

87

interconnected section of the forebrain that regulates many motivational behaviors: eating drinking, sex, emotional behaviors

limbic system

88

involved in saving temporary memories and putting them into permanent storage in various other parts of the brain: memory

hippocampus

89

evaluating emotional significance of stimuli, especially fear, threat, distress

amygdale

90

sensory relay. Every sense that comes in through your brain is relayed through the thalamus

thalamus

91

regulates the four f’s (fight or flight response, feeding, intercourse)

hypothalamus

92

i) Measures the electrical activity and provides information about brain activity, can show what areas of the brain are active during certain cognitive tasks

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

93

i) Measures the amount of radiation that is absorbed by neurons
ii) Active neurons absorb more than less active neurons
iii) Different levels of absorption are represented by different colors

Positron emission tomography (PET)

94

i) Measures the change in activity of functioning neurons during a cognitive task

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

95

meaningless bits of information that result when the brain processes the electrical signals

sensations

96

meaningful sensory experiences that result when the brain combines hundreds of senses

perception

97

a segment of electromagnetic energy that we can see because these waves are the correct length to stimulate the receptors in the eye

the visible spectrum

98

focuses light waves into a more narrow beam

cornea

99

allows light to enter the eye

pupil

100

the muscle around the pupil that controls how much light enters the eye

iris

101

: focuses light waves into an even more narrow beam than the cornea

lens

102

contains photoreceptors which begin the transduction process

retina

103

: optic nerve to lateral geniculate nucleus (thalamus) to primary visual cortex to visual association area

vision pathway

104

free nerve endings wrap around the base of each hair follicle

hair receptors

105

these receptors transmit information about pain and temperature

free nerve ending

106

receptors that send information based on vibration

sensory receptors

107

i) Stimulus: various chemicals
(1) Sweet salty sour bitter umami

gustation

108

iii) Only direct pathways straight to your brain
iv) Pathway: thalamus then outward for processing

olfaction

109

the point at which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived

threshold

110

the smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person can detect 50% of the time

just noticeable difference

111

the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect 50% of the time

absolute threshold

112

guided by previous knowledge to recognize the whole pattern

top down processing

113

begins with bits and pieces of information that, when combined, lead to the recognition of the whole pattern

bottom up processing

114

gestalt psychologists came up with rules to explain how our brains combine and organize individual pieces of elements into a meaningful perception

organizational rules

115

picking out an object from its background (pick out an object from its background)

figure ground rule

116

we tend to fill in missing parts of a figure to see it as complete

closure

117

we tend to group elements together that appear similar

similarity

118

we group together objects that are physically close together

proximity

119

stimuli are organized in the simplest way possible

simplicity

120

we tend to favor smooth or continuous paths

continuity

121

a) We perceive sizes, shapes, brightness, and colors as remaining the same even though their physical characteristics are constantly changing

perceptual constancy

122

our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their image is on the retina are continually growing and shrinking

size constancy

123

our tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape, even though you view it from different angles

shape constancy

124

our tendency to perceive colors as the same in different lighting

brightness and color constancy

125

the ability of your eye and brain to add a third dimension, depth to all visual perceptions...even though images projected on the retina are in only two dimensions

depth perception

126

depends on the movement of both eyes for the perception of depth

binocular cues

127

the brain uses signal sent from the eyes to determine distance

convergence

128

each eye sees a slightly different picture this is interpreted by the brain and gives us a cue to its distance

retinal disparity

129

commonly arise from the way objects are arranged in the environment

monocular cues

130

when parallel line converge in the distance

linear perspective

131

when we expect that two objects are the same size, but they do not appear to be

relative size

132

one object overlapping another obejct appears to be closer

interposition

133

brightly lit objects appear closer

light and shadow

134

objects with detailed texture appear closer

texture gradient

135

clearer objects appear to be nearer than hazy objects

atmospheric perspective

136

faster moving objects appear to be closer to us

motion parallax

137

different levels of awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings

consciousness

138

: activities that require full awareness, alertness, and concentration to reach a goal

i) Controlled processes:

139

activities that require little awareness and do not interfere with other activities

automatic processes

140

requires a low level of awareness, often occurs during automatic processes, involves fantasizing while awake

daydreaming

141

awareness that differs from normal consciousness
(1) Can be produced by meditation, hypnosis, psychoactive drugs...

altered states

142

: five different stages of awareness, responsiveness, and physiological arousal

sleep

143

a variety of visual, auditory, and tactile images, often connected in strange ways

dreams

144

: total lack of sensory awareness and complete loss of responsiveness to one’s environment

unconsciousness

145

internal timing systems that are genetically set to regulate various physiological responses for different periods of time

biological clocks

146

a biological clock that is set to regulate physiological responses for around 24 hours

circadian rhythm

147

(2) The location of a biological clock (circadian rhythm) that controls your sleep-wake cycle is

suprachiasmatic nucleus

148

secreted by the pineal gland during the dark and plays a role in promoting sleep

melatonin

149

transition from wakefulness to sleep
(a) 1-7 minutes
(b) marked with theta waves

stage one

150

Marks what we really refer to as sleep
(a) 5-15 minutes
(b) marked with theta waves

stage two

151

deep sleep
(a) 15-45 minutes
(b) MARKED WITH DELTA WAVES

stage 3 and 4

152

most of your dreaming occurs in this stage (20% of all sleep)
(a) 15-45 minutes

rapid eye movement

153

(1) When we are asleep, our censor that protects us from realizing our unconscious desires is turned off
(2) Our desires are manifested in symbols that appear in our dreams

Freud's theory of dreams

154

(1) Our dreams reflect the same thoughts, fears, emotions, problems, and concerns that we have when we are awake

extensions of waking life

155

(1) The section of the brain involved in reasoning is shut down during sleep
(2) As a result, different chemicals and neural influence produce hallucinations, delusions, emotions, and bizarre thought patterns

activation synthesis theory

156

(1) Dreaming serves a biological function by repeatedly stimulating events that are threatening in our waking lives so we can rehearse our responses

threat simulation theory

157

difficulties in either going to sleep or staying asleep throughout the night

insomnia

158

(a) Xanax, restoril

benzodiazepines

159

ambien, lunesta

non benzodiazepines

160

repeated periods during sleep where a person stops breathing for 10 seconds or longer

sleep apnea

161

: a chronic disorder that is characterized by excessive sleepiness, usually in the form of short bursts of sleep attacks throughout the day

narcolepsy

162

waking up during stage 3 or 4 of sleep with a scream, rapid breathing, increased heart rate

night terror

163

occur during REM sleep and are anxiety producing images that occur during dreams

nightmares

164

occurs during stages 3 or 4 and consists of walking around (usually clumsily)

sleepwalking