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1

cells that carry information from one place to another

neurons

2

contains the nucleus and other cellular machinery necessary for cell functioning

cell body

3

carries information from the cell body to the synapse (the space between two neurons)

axon

4

receives input from other cells

dendritic tree

5

serve as "support cells" do not convey information like neurons

glia

6

modify the environment for neurons
remove dead neurons
myelinate axons: fatty tissue that insulates axons and increases speed of new transmission
help maintain blood brain barrier

functions of the glia

7

area with lots of myelination from glial cells

white matter

8

neuronal cell bodies

grey matter

9

brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

10

everything but the central nervous system

peripheral nervous system

11

bring info to the central nervous system

sensory neurons

12

associate information within the central nervous system

interneurons

13

send information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles

motor neurons

14

front of the brain

anterior

15

back of the brain

posterior

16

toward the front/head

rostral

17

toward the back/tail

caudal

18

top of the brain

superior

19

bottom of the brain

inferior

20

(4 legged animal) animals back

dorsal

21

(4 legged animal) animals stomach

ventral

22

towards the middle

medial

23

away from the middle

lateral

24

slicing the brain so the top is separated from the bottom

horizontal

25

slicing the brain ear to ear separating the from from the back

coronal

26

slicing the left side from the right side

saggital

27

fluid filled spaces

ventricles

28

a clear fluid that cushions the brain and is within the ventricles

cerebrospinal fluid

29

most prominent, left and right separated by tissue

lateral ventricles

30

situated at midline, between left and right thalamus

3rd ventricle

31

diamond shaped, behind pons and medulla

4th ventricle

32

brings input from peripheral sensory organs TO brain and sends motor information OUT

spinal cord

33

controls vital functions including breathing and heart rate, contains most of the cell bodies of the cranial nerves

medulla

34

located posterior to the medulla, roles in movement, balance, posture control and cognition

cerebellum

35

superior to medulla, anterior to cerebellum role in eye movement and balance

pons

36

superior to pons, role in processing visual and auditory information, contains superior colliculus (important in visual systems) and inferior colliculus (important in auditory systems)

midbrain

37

medulla, pons and midbrain

the brainstems

38

major relay station for sensory information coming into the cortex and almost all motor information leaving it

thalamus

39

helps body maintain a steady state (feeding, drinking, body temperature regulation, secretes hormones, fight or flight)

hypothalamus

40

thalamus and hypothalamus

diencephalon

41

consists of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and the globes pallidus

basal ganglia

42

important for motor control (helps control voluntary movement and can increase or decrease motor output)

basal ganglia

43

important for emotions

the limbic system

44

the bumps and grooves on the surface of the brain

cerebral cortex

45

a convolution or bump

gyrus

46

each valley between bumps

sulcus

47

a very deep sulcus

fissure

48

separates brain in an anterior posterior dimension

central fissure (rolandic fissure)

49

dorsal ventral dimension

sylvian fissure (lateral)

50

separates the right cerebral hemisphere from the left

longitudinal fissure (interhemispheric fissure)

51

although all regions of cortex have five or six layers of cells, the relative thickness of each layer, as well as shape and size of cell within those layers varies between brain regions

cytoarchitectonic divisions

52

divides the brain into distinct areas

broadmann map

53

the part of the cortex that directly drives your motor output

primary motor cortex

54

feeling, touch

primary sensory cortex/somatosensory cortex

55

nerves making contact with our muscles and joints that allow us to know where we are in space

proprioception

56

an area of the brain where information from multiple modalities is processed, regions that support abilities such as language, compassion, and foresight

association areas

57

whats in between association areas?

combined information from various brain regions

58

further processing of sensory information with object recognition, when we see a cup we know its a cup

multimodal

59

functions are planning, guidance, and evaluation of behavior

frontal lobe

60

when damaged there are usually behavioral changes

frontal lobe damage

61

function is to integrate information across sensory modalities

parietal lobe

62

when damaged, hemineglect (ignoring one side of space, usually left side) is usually a result

parietal lobe damage

63

function: memory, visual item recognition, emotion, auditory processing

temporal lobe

64

when damaged, inability to recognize common objects is a result

temporal lobe damage

65

input (perception)

• Speech sounds perception test (auditory)
• Tactile perception test (touch)

66

attention, concentration and memory

• Digit span (how many numbers can you repeat)
• Trail making test

67

language skills

• Ability to understand spoken language defining words
• Phonological processing: speech sounds in reading

68

♣ Visual spatial skills

Block design
• Rey-ostereith complex figure

69

♣ Concept formation, reasoning and logic analysis

• Matrix reasoning
• Wisconsin card sorting test

70

♣ Output/motor skills

• Fine motor skills (grooved pegs, finger tapping test)
• Gross motor skills (walking/throwing/catching)

71

o Halstead-Reitan Battery

♣ Common neuropsychological test battery
♣ Assesses many domains functioning
♣ Takes 8 months