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Flashcards in Psych -final Deck (115):
1

a person's ability to adapt to the environment and learn from experience

intelligence

2

a subarea of psychology that develops psychological tests that assess an individual’s abilities, skills, beliefs, and personality traits in a wide range of settings

psychometrics

3

reported to have measured intelligence in an objective way. One of the first to use the psychometric approach.

charles spearman

4

intelligence has a general mental ability factor, g, that represents what different cognitive tasks have in common (one # defines how smart you are)

general intelligence theory

5

rejected the idea that a single # can tell us our intelligence. We actually have many difference kinds of intelligence...

howard gardner

6

there are at least nine different types of intelligence; verbal, musical, spatial, mathematical, movement, understanding self, understanding others, naturalistic, and existential. (gave you a number based on these, at least 9 numbers)

multiple intelligence theory

7

a better way to measure intelligence is to analyze three types of reasoning processes, being able to solve problems...

robert sternberg

8

intelligence can be divided into three reasoning processes: analytical, creative, and practical

triarchic theory

9

measured intelligence by the size of your head

francis galton

10

said the bigger the brain, the more intelligent the person

paul broca

11

: appointed to a committee to distinguish between normal children and intellectually deficient children (idiots, imbeciles, and morons). How can we easily measure a person’s ability to perform cognitive tasks?

alfred binet

12

items arranged in order of increasing difficulty. The items measured vocabulary, memory, common knowledge, and other cognitive abilities.

binet-simon intelligence scale

13

a measure that estimates a child’s intellectual progress by comparing the child’s score on an intelligence test ot the scores of average children the same age.

mental age

14

developed the Stanford-Binet intelligence Scale. Improved on the concept of mental age

lewis terman

15

mental age/chronological ageX100

IQ

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a. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
b. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

examples of IQ tests

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the test is measuring what it is supposed to measure(hitting the target)

validity of IQ tests

18

consistency...a person’s score on the test at one point in time should be similar to the score obtained at a later time

reliability of IQ tests

19

How far the scores are from the mean.

standard deviations

20

a statistical arrangement of scores where the vast majority of scores fall in the middle range and fewer falling near the extreme ends of the curve

normal distribution

21

the various physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way at a particular time

motivation

22

3 characteristics of motivation

1. You are energized to engage in some activity
2. You direct your energy toward reaching a specific goal
3. You have different intensities of feelings about reaching that goal

23

humans are motivated by a variety of tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior.

instinct approach

24

we are motivated to seek out activities that provide a level of stimulation that allows us to maintain our optimal level of arousal

arousal theory

25

performance on a task is an interaction between the level of physiological arousal and the difficulty of the task

yerkes-dodson law

26

someone who needs more arousal than the normal person

sensation seeker

27

motivation to perform an activity occurs because the reward/pleasure center in the brain has been stimulated (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area). We feel good when eating, gambling, drugs, sex.

reward/pleasure center approach

28

neurotransmitter involved in pleasure.

dopamine

29

as we aim to fulfill our basic needs, we experience different types of motivation

self-determination theory

30

goals that can be either objects or thoughts that we learn to value and that we are motivated to obtain

incentive

31

engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards

extrinsic motivation

32

engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding

intrinsic motivation

33

we must fulfill our biological needs before we satisfy our social needs. First satisfy bottom needs. (most widely accepted theory of motivation)

maslow's hierarchy of needs

34

order of needs from bottom to top

1. Physiological needs: food and water
2. Safety: employment, housing, health, security
3. Love/belonging: friendships, family
4. Esteem: confidence, achievement, respect
5. Self-actualization: creativity, problem solving

35

the desire to set challenging goals and to persist in pursuing those goals in the face of obstacles, frustrations, and setbacks

achievement need

36

the story you told about the picture is scored in terms of achievement themes: setting goals, competing, overcoming obstacles

i. McClelland and Atkinson developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):

37

i. Those who persist longer at a certain task; perform better on tasks, activities, or exams; set challenging but realistic goals; competitive; attracted to careers that require initiative. (Michael phelps)

high need for achievement

38

People who are motivated to avoid failure by choosing easy, non-challenging tasks where failure is unlikely to occur

fear of failure

39

i. Individuals that score high on tests of ability or intelligence but perform more poorly than their scores would predict. Slackers.
ii. Poor self-concept, low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, shy, depressed

underachievement

40

a response that consists of four components:
a. You interpret or appraise some stimulus in terms of your well-being
b. You experience a subjective feeling such as fear or happiness
c. You have physiological responses, such as changes in heart rate or breathing
d. You may show observable behaviors, such as smiling or crying

emotion

41

physiological changes in the body give rise to emotional feelings

peripheral theories

42

our brains interpret specific physiological changes as feelings or emotions and there is a different physiological pattern underlying each emotion. You see a bear, adrenaline makes you run away, THEN you feel fear. You running away causes the fear.

james lange theory

43

emotions originate in the brain and are not the result of physiological responses, but happen at the same time

cannon-bard theory

44

sensations and feedback from the movement of facial muscles and skin are interpreted by your brain as different emotions

facial feedback hypothesis

45

your interpretation or appraisal or thought or memory of a situation, object, or event can contribute to an emotional state

cognitive appraisal theory

46

monitors and evaluates whether stimuli have positive or negative emotional significance for our well-being and survival

amygdala

47

functions of emotion

a. Sending social signals
b. Survival,
c. attention(we attend to emotional events)
d. memory:

48

a main function of emotions is to produce general arousal that will prepare the body for action

arousal

49

emotions help us evaluate objects, people, and situations in terms of how good or bad they are for our well-being and survival

evolutionary theory of emotions

50

study of a person’s biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development across the lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood

human development

51

extends from conception to birth and lasts around 266 days. 3 phases: germinal, embryonic, fetal

prenatal period

52

: the first stage of prenatal development and refers to the two-week period following conception (-)

germinal

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the sperm penetrates the ovum’s outer membrane. After fertilization occurs, we now call the cells a zygote

conception

54

second stage of prenatal period and spans the 2-8 weeks that follow conception.
1. This stage begins when the zygote implants (attaches) to the wall of the uterus. Cell divide and differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs. (+)

embryonic stage

55

third stage of prenatal period and begins around two months after conception
1. Lasts until birth (usually 38-42 weeks)

fetal stage

56

an organ that connects the blood supply of the mother to that of the fetus
1. Acts like a filter, allowing oxygen and nutrients to pass through while keeping out some toxic of harmful substances

placenta

57

an agent that can cause harm to a developing fetus

teratogens

58

a. The growth of our sense...sight, hearing, tough, smell, and taste...beginning during the prenatal and continuing through childhood

sensory and motor development

59

i. newborns prefer mother right after birth (recognize eyes)
ii. at four months can distinguish mother’s face from stranger’s face
iii. 3 or 4 years, and infant’s visual ability are equal to those of an adult’s

faces

60

i. One month old can hear and distinguish subtle sounds
ii. By six months, infants can make all the sounds necessary to learn the language in which they are raised

hearing

61

i. Newborns have a well-developed sense of touch
ii. Touch will elicit a number of reflexes, such as grasping and suckling

touch

62

i. Newborns can distinguish between subtle odors
ii. Six weeks old infants can distinguish between the smell of their mother and the smell of a stranger
iii. Preference for sweet/salt and dislike bitter

smell and taste

63

a. the stages of motor skills that all infants pass through s they acquire the muscular control necessary for making coordinated movements.

motor development

64

the parts closer to the center of the infant’s body develop before parts farther away. Activities involving the trunk are mastered before activities involving the arms and legs

proximodistal principle

65

the parts of the body closer to the head develop before the parts closer to the feet. Activities involving the head and neck are mastered before activities involving the arms and legs

cephalocaudal principle

66

influence and interaction of genetic factors, brain changes, cognitive factors, coping abilities, and cultural factors in the development of emotional behaviors, expressions, thoughts, and feelings

emotional development

67

an individual’s stable and long term patter of mood and emotional behavior. Influenced by genetic factors

temperament

68

a close, fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parents or caregiver

attachment

69

an emotional bond characteristic of infants who use their primary caregiver as a safe home base from which they can wander off and explore environments

secure attachment

70

: an emotional bond characteristic of infants who avoid of show ambivalence or resistance toward their caregiver

insecure attachment

71

iii. Ainsworth says attachments occur by

1. The infants temperament
2. The caregiver’s attitude (responsiveness, caring)

72

a. How a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors

cognitive development

73

the process by which a child uses old methods or experiences to deal with new situations. Early on, the child will put an object in its mouth because its knowledge of objects are that they are for eating...

assimilation

74

: the process by which a child changes old methods to deal with or adjust to new situations. Blocks are now for stacking

accommodation

75

four different stages...sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational...each of which is more advance than he previous

d. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development

76

: infants interact and learn about their environments by relating their sensory experiences (hearing/seeing) to their motor actions (mouthing/grasping). Birth to around two years

sensorimotor

77

the understanding that objects or events continue to exist even if they can no longer be heard, touched, or seen

object permanence

78

children learn to use symbols, such as words or mental images, to solve simple problems and to think or talk about things that are not present. Around two to seven years old

preoperational

79

even though the shape of an object is changed, the total amount remains the same

conservation

80

children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects that are physically present. Around seven to eleven years of age

concrete operational

81

being able to sort objects by both size and color (objects must be present)

classification

82

adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about and solve abstract problems in a logical manner. 12-adulthood

formal operational

83

tendency of adolescents to believe that others are always watching and evaluating them, and the belief that everyone thinks and cares about the same things they do

egocentrism

84

an individual seeks pleasure form different areas of the body that are associated with sexual feelings

b. Freud’s psychosexual stages of development:

85

infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth. birth to 18 months.
1. Conflict: if the infant’s oral gratification is rewarded too much or too little, the infant would continue to seek oral gratification as an adult

oral

86

infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its process of elimination. 1.5-3 years old
1. Conflict: if the infant became fixated at this stage, he/she would engage in retention activities as an adults—very neat, OCD

anal

87

infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals. 3-6 years old
1. Conflict: if the infant became fixated at this stage, he/she would compete with the parent of the same sex for the pleasures or affections of the parent of the opposite sex

phallic

88

the child represses sexual thoughts and engages in nonsexual activities such as developing social and intellectual skills. 6-puberty

latency

89

sexual desires reappear and the individual seeks to fulfill those desires. Puberty-adulthood

genital

90

: an individual’s primary goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs

c. Erikson psychosocial stages of development:

91

: birth to 12 months. Problem: the helpless infant requires care and attention. Needs met: sense of trust. Needs unmet: sense of mistrust

trust vs mistrust

92

1-3 years old. Problem: the child has a desire to explore his/her environment. Needs met: develop independence. Needs unmet: sense of shame

ii. Autonomy vs shame and doubt:

93

3-5 years of age. Problem: the child has a need to develop plans and initiate them. Needs met: responsibility. Needs unmet: guild and unable to plan for the future.

initiative vs guilt

94

5-12 years of age. Problem: child will be required to work and complete school projects etc...needs met: sense of industry. Needs unmet: sense of incompetence

industry vs inferiority

95

adolescence. Problem: individual has a need to leave behind irresponsibility nd become more purposeful and responsible. Needs met: positive identity. Unmet: sense of low self-esteem and socially withdrawn.

identity vs role confusion

96

a developmental period, lasting from around 12 to 18 years of age, biological, cognitive, social, and personality traits change from childlike to adultlike

adolescence

97

a developmental period between 9 and 17. Biological changes result in developing secondary sexual characteristics and reaching sexual maturity

puberty

98

body structures that are specific to each sex and are related to reproduction

primary sexual characteristics

99

physical characteristics other than reproductive organs that differentiate males and females

secondary sexual characteristics

100

i. 2 years before boys
ii. onset usually occurs between 9 and 13

girls during puberty

101

levels increase eightfold, which stimulates the development of both primary and secondary sexual

estrogen

102

i. 10 and 14
ii. 2 years after girls

boys during puberty

103

stimulates the growth of genital organs and the development of secondary sexual characteristics

testosterone

104

how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of the world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors

cognitive development

105

adolescents and adults develop abilities to think about abstract or hypothetical concepts, to consider an issue from another viewpoint, and to solve problems in a logical way

formal operational

106

attempt to direct the child’s activities in a rational and intelligent way
a. Supportive, loving, committed. Rules discussed with kids

authoritative

107

: less controlling parents who don’t punish, few demands
a. Warm and supportive. Don’t guide kids

permissive

108

attempt to shape and control the behavior and attitudes of their children in accordance with a strict code of conduct
a. Absolute obedience is a virtue

authoritarian

109

how we describe ourselves; values goals traits perceptions etc.

self identity

110

: how much we value our worth, importance, attractiveness, and social competence

self esteem

111

gradual and natural slowing of our physical and psychological processes

normal aging

112

caused by genetic defects, physiological problems, diseases...age faster

pathological aging

113

rate in which we encode information into LTM to retrieve information from LTM

processing speed

114

rate at which we can identify a stimulus

perceptual speed

115

: rate at which we respond to some stimulus

reaction time