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Flashcards in child development Deck (105)
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1

o Feral, unsocialized
o Mental retardation? Social isolation?
o People asked if they could “civilize” him
o Raised fundamental questions:
Innate vs. environmental?
Can early experience be reversed?

Victor

2

o Severe isolation and abuse
o Mostly mute
o After rescue: learned to speak and play but was never “normal”
o Critical periods of development?

Genie

3

• Periods of Development

o Prenatal (conception to birth)
o Infancy (birth to two years)
o Early childhood (2-6 years)
o Middle childhood (6-12 years)
o Adolescence (12-18)

4

• Domains of development

o Social, emotional, cognitive, physical

5

• Contexts of development
o What shapes development?

Family
Culture
Community, school, peers

6

four fundamental issues

nature and nurture, plasticity, continuity/discontinuity, individual differences

7

nature and nurture

what are the sources of development? Biology vs. environment

8

plasticity

is development open to change?

9

sensitive periods

experience has strong effect on development

10

critical periods

experience is necessary for development

11

gradual change
o Quantitative

continuity

12

quick, abrupt change
o Qualitative

discontinuous

13

How are people unique?
How are people the same?
How stable are individual differences?

individual differences

14

• A conceptual framework that guides our understanding of observations

theory

15

classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modelings

social learning/behaviorism

16

♣ Watson: can turn a child into anything you wanted. Everything was based on experience

classical conditioning

17

♣ Reinforcement will be repeated and punishment associated with things will not be repeated

o Operant conditioning

18

♣ Learn behavior from models
♣ Bobo doll experiment (bandura)
♣ Woman beats up Bobo, children watch and then beat up Bobo

modeling

19

o Children start with a Schema: way of understanding world
o Go into the world and gain Experience: biological or environmental change
o Then adapt their schema:
♣ Assimilation (large--> small blocks)
♣ Accommodation (blocks--> legos)
o With every experience they have, they should be updating their schemas
o Stages of cognitive development (know ages and first two)
♣ Sensorimotor
♣ Pre-operational
♣ Concrete operational
♣ Formal operational

constructivism

20

o Emphasizes role of culture

sociocultural theory

21

gap between what a child can do and then next step they need to get to. Parents need to help them get to that next step.

o Zone of proximal development

22

o Environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA)
♣ Ex: fight or flight
o Survival of the fittest
o Skills that children have are evolutionary adaptive (crying, motor skills etc.)

evolution darwin

23

• Ecological systems theory

o Takes focus off of the individual
o Focuses on larger systems
o From direct (friends, family, school) to very indirect (culture that they’re in, government that their under)
o Family systems therapy

24

cultural tools

• Material:
o The way your bedroom looks--boys typically messier than girls
o Different kinds of toys you give to each gender
• Symbolic
o Beliefs, values, and expectations are all built from conversation etc.

25

how is culture inherited?

o Imitation
o Explicit instruction
o Symbolic communication

26

what genetic makeup is

genotype

27

observable traits

phenotype

28

prenatal period

germinal, embryonic, fetal

29

germinal

♣ Conception (8-10 days)
♣ Cell proliferation

30

exist in early stages that can become anything, go in any direction can become liver, brain, etc.

♣ Totipotent stem cells