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Flashcards in child development Deck (105):
1

o Feral, unsocialized
o Mental retardation? Social isolation?
o People asked if they could “civilize” him
o Raised fundamental questions:
Innate vs. environmental?
Can early experience be reversed?

Victor

2

o Severe isolation and abuse
o Mostly mute
o After rescue: learned to speak and play but was never “normal”
o Critical periods of development?

Genie

3

• Periods of Development

o Prenatal (conception to birth)
o Infancy (birth to two years)
o Early childhood (2-6 years)
o Middle childhood (6-12 years)
o Adolescence (12-18)

4

• Domains of development

o Social, emotional, cognitive, physical

5

• Contexts of development
o What shapes development?

Family
Culture
Community, school, peers

6

four fundamental issues

nature and nurture, plasticity, continuity/discontinuity, individual differences

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nature and nurture

what are the sources of development? Biology vs. environment

8

plasticity

is development open to change?

9

sensitive periods

experience has strong effect on development

10

critical periods

experience is necessary for development

11

gradual change
o Quantitative

continuity

12

quick, abrupt change
o Qualitative

discontinuous

13

How are people unique?
How are people the same?
How stable are individual differences?

individual differences

14

• A conceptual framework that guides our understanding of observations

theory

15

classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modelings

social learning/behaviorism

16

♣ Watson: can turn a child into anything you wanted. Everything was based on experience

classical conditioning

17

♣ Reinforcement will be repeated and punishment associated with things will not be repeated

o Operant conditioning

18

♣ Learn behavior from models
♣ Bobo doll experiment (bandura)
♣ Woman beats up Bobo, children watch and then beat up Bobo

modeling

19

o Children start with a Schema: way of understanding world
o Go into the world and gain Experience: biological or environmental change
o Then adapt their schema:
♣ Assimilation (large--> small blocks)
♣ Accommodation (blocks--> legos)
o With every experience they have, they should be updating their schemas
o Stages of cognitive development (know ages and first two)
♣ Sensorimotor
♣ Pre-operational
♣ Concrete operational
♣ Formal operational

constructivism

20

o Emphasizes role of culture

sociocultural theory

21

gap between what a child can do and then next step they need to get to. Parents need to help them get to that next step.

o Zone of proximal development

22

o Environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA)
♣ Ex: fight or flight
o Survival of the fittest
o Skills that children have are evolutionary adaptive (crying, motor skills etc.)

evolution darwin

23

• Ecological systems theory

o Takes focus off of the individual
o Focuses on larger systems
o From direct (friends, family, school) to very indirect (culture that they’re in, government that their under)
o Family systems therapy

24

cultural tools

• Material:
o The way your bedroom looks--boys typically messier than girls
o Different kinds of toys you give to each gender
• Symbolic
o Beliefs, values, and expectations are all built from conversation etc.

25

how is culture inherited?

o Imitation
o Explicit instruction
o Symbolic communication

26

what genetic makeup is

genotype

27

observable traits

phenotype

28

prenatal period

germinal, embryonic, fetal

29

germinal

♣ Conception (8-10 days)
♣ Cell proliferation

30

exist in early stages that can become anything, go in any direction can become liver, brain, etc.

♣ Totipotent stem cells

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o Embryonic

♣ Germinal period- week 8
♣ When zygote gets implanted and become embryo
♣ Amnion and chorion are formed
♣ Placenta
♣ Umbilical cord

♣ Cell differentiation (gastrulation)
♣ Epigenesis

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o Fetal

♣ Embryonic period-birth
♣ All systems are present
♣ Increase in complexity and mass

♣ Responsive to environment

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o Labor and birth

♣ 38-42 weeks gestation
♣ 3 stages: contractions(uterus is squeezing in on baby), PUSH, after-birth (placenta comes out)

34

childbirth in US

most are hospital births, and have an effect on the childs development

35

brain development

born with 10 billion neurons

36

experience-dependent

child are developing and learning about whats in their environment

37

experience-expectant

ready for certain input (sensitive periods)

38

phoneme distinction

babies can distinguish between phonemes within the first few months of life. can hear all different sounds

39

babies hear sounds produced in their native language

6-8 months

40

face recognition

o Innate preference for faces
o Face-like forms
o Preferences—upper vs lower half
o Configuration vs. feature differences
o 3 to 4 month year olds were sensitive to configuration

41

taste

o sweet preference: its calming, pain relief (because breast milk is sweet)
o don’t like sour and bitter, they make a face

42

intermodal perception

ability to combine senses

43

reflexes

grasping, sucking, rooting etc.

44

sensorimotor stage

coordinate sense with movement

45

sub stage 1

exercising reflex schemas: practicing their reflexes

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subs tage 2

primary circular reactions: expand reflexes to new situations (can suck more than just nipples and repeat these)

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difference between sub stage 1 and sub stage 2

go from noticing reflexes to actually using them for better more satisfying purposes

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fine motor skills

what they can do with their hands (reaching, grasping)

49

gross motor skills

whole body (Crawl, walk)

50

fear of heights

developed around 9 months. Learned by experience

51

conceptual development

starting to move from sensorimotor to representational. starting to represent things in the world in their mind

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object permanence

objects exist when out of sight

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A not B error

hide toy then move it to a new location to hide right in front of them, and see if they can find the toy in the new location

54

criticism of Piaget

the tasks he had the kids doing were too difficult

55

alternative research methods

violation of expectations: show a kid something that couldn't happen, and see their reaction

56

counting

o Sense of numerical properties, looking tasks, surprised at wrong numbers, intermodal

57

• Cause-effect relationships

o Squares bumping into squares
o Causal or non-causal condition
o Stared longer at non-causal
o More complex objects
o Learning process...

58

categorization

kids will group birds and airplanes together because they look the same

59

two ideas regarding infant's emotions

differentiation and ontogenetic adaptation

60

differentiation

children seem to have fewer emotions, but have all emotions as adults but express them in a different way (crying)

61

ontogenetic adaptation

emotions serve a different purpose than adult's emotions (ex: smiling...random)

62

intersubjectivity

shared emotional connection between a child and their caregiveer

63

primary intersubjectivity

interaction between infant and caregiver

64

secondary intersubjectivity

interaction with other things in the world

65

intersubjectivity gone wrong

still-face study

66

attachment

parent-child bond. • Sense of security
• Established by 7-9 months

67

attachment theories

drive reduction theory: freud's theory, the reason children become attached is because they need food from parents.
ethological theory: bowlby's theory, the parent serves as secure base of exploration for child
strange situation: separation and reunions

68

secure attachment strange situation

Strange situation task Child’s behavior
With parent. Freely explores
With stranger or alone. Exploration limited. Often upset.
Reunion Easily conforted. Returns to exploring.

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ambivalent/resistant strange situation

Strange situation task Child’s behavior
With parent. Cautious. Low self exploration
With stranger/alone Very upset and negative
Reunion Not easily comforted. Seeks and resists affection

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avoidant

Strange situation task Child’s behavior
With parent Freely explores. Ignores parent
With stranger or alone Not upset
Reunion Ignores or avoids parent

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disorganized/traumatic

Strange situation task Child’s Behavior
With parent Disorganized, confused, often fearful
With stranger or alone Disorganized and confused, often fearful
Reunion Disorganized, confused, often fearful

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Attachment: Socioemotional trajectories

• Secure: feel in control, low psychopathology
• Ambivalent/resistant: lack of control, anxiety and depression
• Avoidant: worse social relationships, behavior problems
• Disorganized/traumatic: world in incohesive, low sense of self, behavior problems, aggression, emotional dysregulation

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developing sense of self

• 18-24 months
o differentiate self from others
o rouge test: put them in front of mirror and see if they can realize they are looking at themselves
o is the “self” just for humans

74

Social referencing

• Using others’ faces/emotions to understand ambiguous situations
visual cliff

75

language development

• requires biological and environmental inputs
• Universal progression
• Requires linguistic inputs
• Social-cultural variations

76

Pre-speech patterns

o Cooing (2-2.5 months)
o Babbling (7-9 months)
o Jargoning (9-12 months)
o First word (12 months)

77

o Speech production

broca's area

78

o Language comprehension

wernicke's area

79

left hemisphere

language is more strongly located on the left side

80

noam chomsky

idea of universal grammar, language is innate and hard wired in people.

81

can primates learn language?

o Kanzi (Bonobo and the rumbaughs): did the tasks that the lady asked him to do
o Lexical keyboard and reinforcement learning
o 2-word uterances
o vocabulary (100’s of words)
o comprehend novel sentences?

82

how environment affects language development

o Genie
o Deaf children in non-signing homes
♣ Rudiments of language
♣ Low complexity

83

when two kids come together from different languages, kids can take grammatical structures of both and develop mixed language and it becomes a new language

pidgin languages

84

multi-lingualism

does it help or hurt language development

85

brain development in early childhood

• Myelination of frontal cortex
• Length and branching of neurons
• Synaptic pruning
• Uneven change--- > variable development

86

Preoperational stage (Piaget)

• 2-6 years
• transition out of sensorimotor
• mental operations begin

87

centration

o fixate on one feature
o that thing is usually an immediate experience (no objectivity) start over generalizing, for example you see a CD player in a car and would expect them to be in all cars. Centered on one feature.

88

• Egocentrism

o Unable to take others’ perspective: can’t see things from another person’s perspective
o 3 mountains study

89

• confusing appearance and reality

o maynard the cat: cat wearing dog mask. Younger kids would say dog etc. older would say cat wearing a dog mask.
o Adults in costume

90

Precausal Reasoning

• Correlation = causation?
• Reverse causality
• Complexity?
• Snoopy!
o Ball causing snoopy to pop up, which ball? One or two

91

How do kids do this? (develop different forms of reasoning)

• Privileged domains
o Specialized, hard-wired forms of reasoning
o Born with naïve/rudimentary understanding of cause
o Directs attention to key features of environment
o Builds knowledge and skills

92

• Naïve Physics

o We are born to understand basic physical laws such as:
♣ Gravity
• Violation-of-expectations
• 5 vs. 7 month olds
• only 7 months looked longer at wrong acceleration
♣ gravity and inertia

93

• Naïve Psychology

o Theory of mind: theories of how other people think
o False belief tasks: seeing if you can trick a kid
o Influence of language and culture

94

Modularity Theory

• Distinct, innate mental modules
• Triggered by environment
• Autism and theory of mind
o Naïve psychology: impaired
o Naïve physics: often intact
o Fail false-belief tasks

95

Theory Theory

• General theory-making ability
• Applied to specific domains
• Modified with experience
• Evidence—appropriate theories in given situations
o Ex: boys hangs on branch-- > falls
o Ex: boy steps off stool wanting to float-- > falls, disappointed

96

♣ Psychodynamic

• Vast majority of our behavior is a way to resolve internal conflicts
• Oedipus complex states that boys have a desire to kill dad, have sex with mom. Guilt reaction: identify with dad, distance from mom.
• Electra complex: Girls have desire to have a penis, kill mom, have sex with dad. Guilt reaction: identify with mom, distance from dad
• Evidence? No. untestable!

97

♣ Social learning

• We model what we see
• Differential reinforcement: girls are rewarded for “girl behaviors” and boys are rewarded for “boy behaviors” or get punished
• Role models? Parents, teachers, older siblings

98

♣ Cognitive development

• Taking a constructivist point of view
o New cognitive skills--- > identity formation
• 3 stages (Kohlberg)
o 3 years: sex identity: can label yourself as boy or girl
o 3-5 years: sex stability: understanding that what sex you are in that moment is what you’ll be when you’re older
o 5-6 years: sex role constancy—can’t change your sex. No confusion of appearance vs. reality. Where is the start of sex-type behavior?

99

♣ Gender schema

• Starts very early
• Little kids get mental model of sex roles, attention is going to be guided towards these things. (encourage or discourage gender roles)
• Scripts for familiar events
• Information processing: boys/girls are being guided to attend certain activities
o Toy choice--- > kids ask themselves: is it relevant to me?
o Yes? Gender category
o No? forgotten

100

♣ Cultural

• Gender roles
o Relative emphasis
o Rigidity of boundaries
• Girls can act like boys but its not as normal is boys act like girls
o Why? Possibly because male stereotype is stronger.

101

♣ Ethnic Identity

• In-group and out-group attitudes
• Clark & clark: “white bias” children chose white doll to play with
o Why? Identify with majority group? Devalue minority group? Desire for equality. Ex: power, wealth
o Less white bias when:
♣ Less power differential
♣ Greater parental activism

102

♣ Ethnic Socialization

• Ethnic relevant messages
• 4 types:
o Cultural socialization: pride in ethnicity
o Preparation for bias: ethnic discrimination
o Promotion of racial mistrust
o Egalitarianism: all equal

103

• African American parents

o 88%- had messages of cultural socialization
o 65%- had messages of racial mistrust
o higher cultural socialization--- >higher cognitive skills

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♣ Personal Identity

• I-self: subjective, sense of stable sense over time. Solidified in teenage/early adult years.
• Me-self: objective, in the moment, current physical characteristics.

105

• Young kids: more at me-self. Preoperational (low representational ability.) Unrealistically positive self-evaluations. Real self vs. ideal self.
• Autobiographical memory
o Personal narrative
o Creates continuity in self
o Parents
♣ Help kids recall events
♣ Probe and make connections
♣ Embellish or diminish details
o Growing independence

personal identity