Flashcards in child development Deck (105)
o Feral, unsocialized
o Mental retardation? Social isolation?
o People asked if they could “civilize” him
o Raised fundamental questions:
Innate vs. environmental?
Can early experience be reversed?
o Severe isolation and abuse
o Mostly mute
o After rescue: learned to speak and play but was never “normal”
o Critical periods of development?
• Periods of Development
o Prenatal (conception to birth)
o Infancy (birth to two years)
o Early childhood (2-6 years)
o Middle childhood (6-12 years)
o Adolescence (12-18)
• Domains of development
o Social, emotional, cognitive, physical
• Contexts of development
o What shapes development?
Community, school, peers
four fundamental issues
nature and nurture, plasticity, continuity/discontinuity, individual differences
nature and nurture
what are the sources of development? Biology vs. environment
is development open to change?
experience has strong effect on development
experience is necessary for development
quick, abrupt change
How are people unique?
How are people the same?
How stable are individual differences?
• A conceptual framework that guides our understanding of observations
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, modelings
♣ Watson: can turn a child into anything you wanted. Everything was based on experience
♣ Reinforcement will be repeated and punishment associated with things will not be repeated
o Operant conditioning
♣ Learn behavior from models
♣ Bobo doll experiment (bandura)
♣ Woman beats up Bobo, children watch and then beat up Bobo
o Children start with a Schema: way of understanding world
o Go into the world and gain Experience: biological or environmental change
o Then adapt their schema:
♣ Assimilation (large--> small blocks)
♣ Accommodation (blocks--> legos)
o With every experience they have, they should be updating their schemas
o Stages of cognitive development (know ages and first two)
♣ Concrete operational
♣ Formal operational
o Emphasizes role of culture
gap between what a child can do and then next step they need to get to. Parents need to help them get to that next step.
o Zone of proximal development
o Environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA)
♣ Ex: fight or flight
o Survival of the fittest
o Skills that children have are evolutionary adaptive (crying, motor skills etc.)
• Ecological systems theory
o Takes focus off of the individual
o Focuses on larger systems
o From direct (friends, family, school) to very indirect (culture that they’re in, government that their under)
o Family systems therapy
o The way your bedroom looks--boys typically messier than girls
o Different kinds of toys you give to each gender
o Beliefs, values, and expectations are all built from conversation etc.
how is culture inherited?
o Explicit instruction
o Symbolic communication
what genetic makeup is
germinal, embryonic, fetal
♣ Conception (8-10 days)
♣ Cell proliferation