Psych 471 Final Flashcards Preview

Fall 2012 > Psych 471 Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psych 471 Final Deck (98)
Loading flashcards...

What are the six social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage?

1. Increased acceptance of singlehood

2. Increased acceptance of cohabitation

3. Increased fagility of marriage

4. Transitions in gender roles

5. Increased voluntary childlessness

6. Decline of traditional nuclear family


In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the increased acceptance of singlehood.



In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the increased acceptance of cohabitiation.

Cohabitation means living together in a sexual, intimate relationship without the legal bonds of marriage.

Negative attitudes toward cohabitation have declined

Married couples are now the minority (49.7% of households are married)

Cohabitating couples increasingly include children


In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the increasing fragility of marriage

There is a disagreement and controversy over the accuracy of divorce rates.

The divorce rate more than doubled between 1965 and 1979

66% of divorce rates are initiated by women


Describe ethnicity divorces

The divorce rate for African Americans is ~2% higher

Asian-Americans divorce rate is MUCH lower


In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the transition in gender roles.

Role expectations for husbands and wives are becoming more varied, flexible, and ambiguous

500% increase in employment of mothers of small children

(1950- 12% of mothers with children

200-60% of mothers with children)

2006: Women earned earned 51% of all PhDs (compared to 39% of women in 1995 and 22% in 1975)


In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the increased voluntary childlessness

And discuss the reasons that married couples want to be childless.

The percent of women without kids has risen in all age groups

The percent of childfree couples has DOUBLED since 1980

An increasing # of married couples who choose to not have children reasons: focus on career rather than family, desire independence, concerns about overpopulation.)


In regards to the social trends affecting the traditional view of marriage, describe the decline of the traditional nuclear family.

Less than 10% of American families fit the traditional

breadwinner husband+homemaker wife= ~2 Kids

The nuclear family has never existed for minority families and low SES families.


When deciding to marry, what are American women socialized to do?

How many Americans marry at least once?

American women are socialized to believe that their lives are not complete until they get married.

90% of Americans marry at least once


In regards to predictors of marital success, describe measuring

It is difficult to measure, many unhappy couples who do not get divorced.

There are no fool proof predictors of marital success

Length of time does not = success in relationship


In regards to predictors of marital success, descibe family background and age

In family background, intergenerational "divorce cycle"; people from dysfunctional families have negative relationship templates

Parental hostility level predicts marital hostility level of off spring

Age- As people marry older, divorce rates may decline


In regards to predictors of marital success, descibe length of courtship and personality.

Length of Courtship-

Waiting longer leads to greater chance of marital success

People who are cautious about marriage have attitudes and values that promote marital stability


Surprisingly, personality similarity is NOT predictive of marital success.

Traits that are bad for marriage= perfectionism and insecurity


**In regards to predictors of marital success, descibe premarital communication**

Marital distress and divorce are more likely if courtship has: negativity, sarcasm, insults, and lack of support

Positive communication elements:

Relationships with self disclosure and acceptance are the most successful-being understood and validated is strongly related to marital satisfaction.

Forgiveness is also related to marital satisfaction

Playfulness and positive emotion in mundane, everyday  interactions.


In regards to predictors of marital success, describe stress.

Stressful situations surrounding a marriage increase conflict and distress and decrease stability.

Stressors include: financial issues, infidelity, distance, losing a job


In regards to adjusting to children discuss:

Marital satisfaction

Do people change their mind

Voluntary childless women


Marital satisfaction is highest in marriage before the arrival of the first child.

~25% change their mind

Voluntary childless women have higher income and more work experience.


What are reasons that couples have children?

Responsibilites to procreate

Joy of watching children mature

Sense of purpose


Don't want to be lonely when old


In regards to adjusting to children discuss:

How many mothers experience Postpartum Depression

Transition to parenthood

Postpartum Depression:

10-13% of new mothers experience post partum depression

Risk Factors= Family histroy of depression, high stress, and marital dissatisfaction

Transition to Parenthood:

Is more difficult whewn father does not meet mother's childcare expectations

Fathers with nontraditional gender ideologies are more proactive with childrearing and have better relationships


In regards to adjusting to children, what is it associated with?

Having children is associated with lower marital satisfaction

Mothers of infants are the least satisfied

Negative relationship between # of children and marital satisfaction

Having children is associated with higher rates of stress and depression and a lower experience of positive emotionss


In regards to childrearing, discuss the "little adult myth" and when interacting with children what to do. 

More productive to think of yourself as a wild animal trainer

You cannot reason with a small child. Reason and logic go out the window. 

Techniques derived from Behaviorism are very effective with children-Contingency Managements (Reinforcing positive behaviors and ignoring/redirecting behavior)

When interacting with children...

Use active listening

Empower with a "feeling vocabulary"

Avoid negative reactions such as yelling, name-calling, sarcasn, pleasing, and guilt.


In regards to childrearing: 

What does research show

What are better childrearing

What do children want more than anything.

Research consistently shows that physical discipline is always a BAD idea

Much better childrearing skills:

Reinforcing positive behaviors

Ignoring or redirecting negative behaviors

Empirically supported methods such as 1-2-3

More than anything children want:


If they don't get it in positive ways, then they will seek it by misbehaving. (Children communicate via "bad" behavior; Children can manipulate parents and control households)


What are the five parenting tips?

1. Let expectations be known

2. Communicate the consequences of noncompliance

3. Give a warning before disciplining

4. Follow through

5. *Be confident*


In regards to parenting tips, discuss:

Follow through and Consistency

Followthrough-children must understand that adults mean business

Consistency is important, because inconsistency makes discipline seem random. random discipline leads to random behavior.

Parental responses must be predictive

The importance of structure and repetition


In regards to adolescent children and elder care discuss:

What stage is most difficult as rated by parents

And discuss, middle aged couples.

Parents overwhelmingly rate adolescents as the most difficult stage of parenting. (Problematic parent-teen relationships are the exception rather than the rule)

Middle aged couples sometimes care for aging parents as well. ("sandwich generation"

33% of women aged 55-69 care for children and parents simultaneously

Caring for an aging parent is associated with increased psychological distress

Middle aged women have the highest stress levels of any demographic.


Discuss the importance of communication

Effective communication is the #1 ingredient in a healthy marriage

Most frequently cited problem  and is the #1 cause of divorce

Importance of feeling safe to discuss conflict, and the importance of how conflict is handled

Unhappy couples get stuck in escalating cycles of conflict. Happy couples break the cycle.

The importance of momentum.


Discuss Unhappy Marriages

Unhappily married couples:

Have difficulty conveying positive messages


Are less likely to recognize misunderstandings

Use more frequent and more intense negative messages

Differ in the amount of self-disclosure they prefer



Discuss the four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

1. Contempt Communicating that one's spuse is inferior

2. Criticism Negative evaluations of one's partner; "You" statements

3. Defensiveness Responding by invalidating, refuting, or denying the partner's statements

4. Stonewalling Refusing to listen to one's partner


In regards to divorce, discuss when divorce is likely and divorce rates. And, what are the stigmas of older and newer attitudes?

Divorce rates have recently gone down slightly because of the economy. 

Most people underestimate their likelihood of experiencing divorce

Most divorces occur during the first decade of their marriage

Older attitudes: suffer in silence

Newer attitudes: the importance of individual fulfillment


When deciding on divorce, what are the pros and cons?

Divorce is a process rather than a discrete event


Higher rates of autonomy , self awareness, personal growth, and job success.

The importance of a social suppport network

Unhappily married people have lower life satisfaction and lower self esteem


Expense, stress, higher incidence of physical and psychological health problems, lower happiness. 


When adjusting to divorce, who is it more disruptive towards?

Who assumes the childrearing responsibilities/?

And, preoccupation with an ex-spouse is associated with what?

Divorce is more difficult and disruptive for women, especially financially. Men also experience a decline in standard of living. 

Women are more likely to assume childrearing responsibilities, whereas men are more likely to reduce their contact with children

Effect of divorce on well-being is similar for both sexes.

High preocccupation with an ex-spouse is associated with poorer adjustment. (this is referring to the person that was dumped)


What are some factors predicting favorable post-divorce adjustment?

Higher income


Positive attitudes about the divorce

Being the initiator (thye will have control)

Forgiveness of the ex-spouse

Supportive social relationships