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In regards to the fundamental tasks of parenting, what are six tasks that should be used?

1. Safety and Sustenance

2.  Social and Emotional Suppor

3.  Stimulation/Instructio

4.  Monitoring

5.  Structure

6.  Social Connectednes


When discussing social and emotional support as a fundamental task of parenting, describe:

social and emotional support



Social and emotional support

Positive Affect


 Toys & Learning Material
 Encouragement ofAchievemen


 Family Routines/Rule


What are the four parenting styles?

• Authoritative
• Authoritarian
• Permissive
• Uninvolve


When operationalizing parenting, describe socialization

Different depending up the socialization goals that a parent has for a given situation.

 Specific practices can vary even within a parenting style  Emotional context of parenting


What are a few examples of specific parenting?

Gentle guidance

Psychological control


Inductive reasoning


In regards to parenting practices, describe gentle guidance

 Directing children in non‐power assertive manne


In regards to parenting practices, describe psychological control

 Managing children by manipulating emotion


In regards to parenting practices, describe responsiveness

 Responding appropriately to children’s needs/bid


In regards to parenting practices, describe inductive reasoning

 When parents inform their children of societal norms and principles, explain why rules are necessary


Discuss socialization

How do parents socialize children

 The process through which we learn attitudes, values,  beliefs, and behaviors appropriate to the social positions we occupy

Parents socialize children across multiple domains:

– Emotion / Emotion Regulation
– Gender Development
– Racial and Ethnic Socialization
– Educational Socialization


What is social referencing?

 Process of looking to another person to for information on how to respond to a situation or stimuli


In regards to parenting practices, what is emotional coaching

• Aware of child’s emotion
• Use emotion as an opportunity for teaching
• Help child identify & label emotions
• Empathize or validate the child’s emotion
• Help child problem solve


In regards to parenting practices, what are some reactions to children's emotions?

 Specific parental responses to children’s positive and
negative emotions
• Distress, punitive, minimization
• Expressive encouragement, emotion‐focused, problem‐focused
– Punitive / negative parental responses tend to heighten
emotional arousal and make it harder for children to
control their emotio


In regards to parenting practices, what are some ways to teach emotion regulation strategies?

– Provide specific strategies for regulating emotions in
specific situations
– E.g., take a deep breath, think about something nice
– Reframe the situation
– Redirecting attentio


Discuss niche picking

 Parents choose to engage in or avoid specific situations given their understanding of their children’s emotion regulation ability


In regards to the family emotional climate, discuss:

Parent child attachment

Parenting style


• Parent‐ChildAttachment
– Provides an emotional context in which emotions
• Parenting Style
– Creates an emotional climate within the family
– Responsive dimension particularly importan

• Emotional Expressivity
• Marital Relationshi


In regards to emotional expressivity, describe verbal and non-verbal emotion

• Verbal and non‐verbal emotion (positive & negative) expressed within the family
– Children more expressive if have more expressive
– Higher levels of positive expressiveness been
linked with better emotion regulation
– Moderate levels of negative emotional
expressiveness may be useful, high levels
negatively associated with E


Discuss gentle guidance and give an example

• Type of behavioral control that directs child in a
non‐power assertive manner
• Example:  
• “Let’s clean‐up the kitchen toys” (happy voice)
• Greater gentle guidance associated with higher levels of committed compliance and internalization of parental goal


What are some limitations in the fathering research?

• Relative to research on maternal parenting, limited amount of research done on fathers
– Many of the studies that study “parenting”
actually only include mothers
• Fathers are less likely to want to or be
available to participate in researc


What does research find about mothering and fathering?

• Research generally finds a lot of similarities with mothering and fathering
• No consistent differences have been found in
parenting style


Discuss fathering during adolescene

• More engaged with sons
• Less contact with daughters
• Relationships with adolescent children more distant
than adolescent’s relationship with mothers
• Equally involved in scholastic and extracurricular
• Adolescent’s generally reportfeeling closer to mothers
than fathers and that mothers know them better


What is the importance of attachment?

• Quality of Interaction important
• Infants form attachments with Fathers even when
there is less contact with the father


What are differences in gender socialization

• Fathers play a critical role in encouraging “femininity”in females and “masculinity”in males
– More concerned then mothers over their children’s development of appropriate sex roles 

• Encourage use of more sex‐typed toy


What are the differences in play?

• Fathers generally engage in more active/boisterous and emotionally evocative play than mothers
 Even with adolescents, fathers are more playful than mothers—joking and teasing
 Mothers play conventional games, interact with toys, and talk more
• Why the difference?
– Fathers may use arousing style to increase the alience of their interactions despite limited time with the child
– Or, men may be more physical than women (but fathers’ physical play with infants not necessarily universal


What are the differences in language/control?

• More directive with children than mothers
– During clean‐up tasks more likely to use direct requests rather than encouragement “pick up the blocks”, vs.“why don’t we pick up the blocks”
• Greater language demands on the child by engaging in
– directives
– Requests for clarification
– “wh‐” questions
– References to past events
– Differences in languag


When does father supportiveness matter?

• Greater maternal supportiveness was associated with greater academic competence and social competence in K and FirstGrade
• Paternal supportiveness was associated with greater social competence in K 
• Sig M x F supportiveness predicting:
– Academic & social competence in  K & First Grade


What is social competence?

– The association between fathers supportiveness
and children’s social competence decreases as
maternal supportiveness increase


What is academic competence?

– The association between fathers supportiveness
and children’s academic competence decreases
as maternal supportiveness increase


What is fathers behavior a predictor of?

 Fathers behavior was a predictor of children’s positive responses during disappointment task (Mother was not)
– Greater F positiveAffect more positive response
– Greater F control lower positive respons


M&F predict what?

• M & F behavior predicted children’s negative responses
– Greater positive affect less negative response
• Greater M control more tensio