Flashcards in PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Deck (62)
What are the two methods used to to treat phobias? (behaviourist)
What are the three steps to system desensitisation?
1. Counter conditioning- Patient taught through classical conditioning to associate the phobia with relaxation instead of fear.
2. Relaxation- Patient taught relaxation techniques.
3. Desensitisation hierarchy- Gradually introducing the person to the feared situation so it is not overwhelming. Patient practises relaxation and their anxiety distinguishes.
What is the evaluation for system desensitisation?
SD has a 75% chance of success. The lack of thinking means the technique is useful for people with learning difficulties.
But works less well for ancient fears.
What is the process for flooding?
One long session with the most fearful stimulus.
Continues until anxiety subsided and relation is complete.
Can be in vivo (actual exposure) or virtual reality.
What is the evaluation for flooding?
Effectiveness- research suggests it’s more effective than SD and quicker (Choy)
It can be a highly traumatic procedure.
Which two studies from the cognitive approach is used to explain depression?
Elllis’ ABC model (1962) and Beck’s negative triad (1967)
What does Ellis’ ABC model stand for?(1962)
A- Activating Effect. B- Belief (rational or irrational) C- Consequence.
What does Ellis’ ABC model (1962) propose?
An activating event leads to a rational or irrational belief which then leads to a consequence.
What is mustabatory thinking and how does it lead to depression?
Thinking that certain ideas or assumptions must be true in order for an individual to be happy - causes disappointment and depression.
What does Beck’s negative triad of 1967 propose?
Parental rejection leads to a negative schema developing in childhood.
Negative triad: negative view of self, the world and future leads to depression.
What is he evaluation of the cognitive approach o explaining depression (ABC model and Negative triad)
It suggests that the client is responsible for their disorder and gives the client the power to change the way things are.
Overlooks situational factors.
What is Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and how is it used to treat depression?
Challenged irrational thought using the extended ABC mode (DEF)
D- Disputing irrational thoughts.
E- Effective attitude to life.
F- New feelings produced.
What is the disputing irrational belief? (The “D” in Ellis’ extension of the ABC Model)
Logical disputing- “Does this make sense?”
Empirical disputing- “Where is proof this is accurate?”
Pragmatic disputing- “How is this belief likely to help me?”
What else does CBT include? (apart from Ellis’ extended ABC model)
Behavioural activation- Encouragement if depressed clients to engage in pleasurable activities.
What is another part of CBT? (excluding Ellis’ extended ABC model and Behavioural activation)
Unconditional positive regard- If a client feels worthless they will feel less willing and to consider changing their belief (Ellis) 1994.
What is the is evaluation for CBT?
Research support- Ellis estimated 90% success in over 27 sessions.
Alternative treatment- drug therapy is much easier in time and effort.
What are the two explanations of the biological approach to explaining OCD?
The genetic explanation - Mental disorders are inherited from specific genes.
The neural explanation- Levels of neurotransmitters affect brain circuits causing OCD.
What genes are an explanation of OCD?
The COMT gene- Creates high levels of dopamine and is found to be more common in OCD patients than people without the disorder.
The SERT gene- Creates lower levels of serotonin and a mutation of this gene is present where 6 of the 7 family member had OCD.
How does diathesis-stress explain OCD?
Each individual only creates a vulnerability (a diathesis) for OCD. Other factors (stressors) affect what condition develops. Therefore some people could possess the COMT or the SERT gene and suffer no ill effects.
How does higher levels of dopamine explain OCD?
In animal studies, high does of drugs that enhance levels of dopamine induce stereotyped movements resembling the compulsive behaviours found in OCD.
How does serotonin explain OCD?
Antidepressants that increase serotonin activity have been shown to reduce OCD symptoms (Pigget).
Antidepressants that have less effect on serotonin do not reduce OCD symptoms(Jenicke).
How does abnormal brain circuits explain OCD?
The caudate nucleus normally suppresses signals from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC).
In turn the OFC sends signals to the thalamus about things that are worrying.
When the caudate nucleus is damaged, if fails to suppress ‘minor’ worry signals and the thalamus is alerted, which in turn sends signals back to the OFC acting as a worry circuit.
What is the support for abnormal brain scans explaining OCD?
It is supported by PET scans of patients with OCD, taken while their symptoms are active. Scans show heightened activity in the OFC.
What is the evaluation for the biological approach to explaining OCD?
MZ twins were more likely to have OCD if the other had it (Billet).
Studies of first degree relatives shows that there is a 5 times greater risk of OCD if the relative has OCD.
How is OCD treated?
Which types of antidepressants are used for drug therapy?
How do SSRIs treat OCD?
Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin is associated with OCD. SSRIs increase levels of serotonin to normalise the worry circuit.
What happens when SSRIs enter the body?
Serotonin is released into a synapse from one nerve. It targets receptor cells on the receiving neuron and is reabsorbed into the initial neuron.
How do tricyclics treat OCD?
They block the transporter mechanism that reabsorbs serotonin and noradrenaline. More of these transmitter are left in the synapse prolonging their activity.