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USLME Kiss my ass and pray > Pulmonary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (156):
1

Alveolar Gas equation
PAO2=

PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)

Can be approximated PAO2= 150 - PaCO2/0.8***

2

A-a gradient

PAO2-PaO2 = 10-15 mmHG

increased indicates underlying lung pathology

3

Air in the stomach on CXR in an infant be concerned w/

Early warning in the mother?

Trachealoesophageal fistula and esphageal atresa

Polyhydrominos

4

Most common type of tracheal esophageal fistula

C type w/ esophageal atresia and distal fistula

Type E (or H type) is the just a fistula

5

Diaphragm is made by the joining of what 4 structures?

Failure leads to?

septum transversum (from the cranial aspect)
fuses w/ pueroperitonela folds, abdominal walls, and esophageal mesentery

Failure congenitally leads to herniation and lung hypoplasia (usually the L) polyhydraminos associated

6

Presentation of congenital diaphragm heniation

polyhydraminos in utero
hypoplastic lung -> cyanosis and inability to breath

flattened stomach

7

5 structures perforating the diaphragm and at what level?

T8 - IVC
T10 - esophagus
T12 - aorta, azygos vein, thoracic duct

8

innervation of the diaphragm

Phrenic C3-5

leads to referred pain to the shoulder (spleen and cholecysitis)

9

Aspiration pneumonia is more likely going to be found in what lobe?

R lobe due to wider and more vertical

Peanut inspiration the same but if lying down will be in the superior portion od the right inferior lobe while standing up it will be inferior portion of R inferior lobe

10

Importance of bronchopulmonary segments? Contains?

separated by connective tissue - has a bronchus, and 2 arteries per segment, veins are in the periphery

Spepaerates out the right 3 lobes and the L 2 lobes further

11

Smokers will see what transformation in their trachea

columnar ciliated cells -> stratified squamous through metaplasia

12

Chronic sinusitis, infertility and situs inversis?

Cause?

Kartagener syndrome

Due to dyenin not functioning leading to cilia defects all over

13

Important measure of fetal lung maturity

lecithen:Springomyelin ratio being greater than 2.0

See if enough dipalmitolphasphatidylcholine is being made

14

Product of type II pneumocytes?

dipalmitolphasphatidylcholine

other type II and I pneumocytes during injury

15

Role of type I pneumocytes?

gas diffusion - very thin

16

muscles of inspiration
- quiet
-exercise(3)

diaphragm

Sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, external intercostals

17

muscles of expiration
-quiet
-exercise

quiet is passive

exercise - internal intercostals, transverse abdominus, rectus abdominus, internal and external obliques

18

TLC is the combination of?

Functional Residual capacity and Inspiratory capacity or

Inspiratory reserve volume and Tidal volume and experatory reserve volume and residual volume

19

Inspiratory capacity is a combination of?

Tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume

20

Vital capacity is a comination of

expiratory reserve capacity, tidal volume and inspiratory reserve capacity

21

Functional reserve capacity

residual volume and expiratory reserve volume

22

Determining the physiologic dead space formula

Dead space
= Tidal volume x [(PaCO2 - PeCO2)]/PaCO2

a= arterial
e expired air

23

Functional residual capacity (FRC) what is the relationship between chest wall and lungs

how does it change in emphysema?

How does it change in fibrosis?

they are balanced in their pull - airway and alveolar pressure are 0 and the intrapleural pressure is negative

in emphasymia there is increased compliance so the FRC is increased. More volume at given pressure

in fibrosis there is decreased compliance so less volume at a given pressure

24

Diffusion limited gases are?(2)
what does that mean?

CO and O2 (in diseased state: emphysema/fibrosis)

means that the partial pressure of the arterial will not be saturated upon leaving the lung - amount of gas carried limited by the diffusion

25

Perfusion limited gases(3)
what does that mean?

CO2, O2, N20

it means that the amount of gas that leaves the lung, the amount of gas carried is limited by the perfusion of the lung, equilibrates very quickly

26

How does COPD lead to Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is heart failure due to lung disease. In COPD there is less oxygen perfusing the pulmonary vasculature leading to vasoconstriction and increased pressure. This increased pressure feeds back on the R heart leading to failure

-normally vessels expand w/ decreased O2, lungs shunt away

27

Pulmonary hypertension is defined as?

>25mmHg in rest
>35 mmHg exercising

Normally 10-15 mmHg

28

Pressure is equal to?

How does radius affect the system?

∆P = Q x R

R = (8 x length x viscosity)/(pi x r^4)

29

IN pulmonary resistance, what can change? What can't generally?

radius of the tube
viscosity of the fluid

can't really change the length
R = (8 x length x viscosity)/(pi x r^4)

30

Adding He to Oxygen does what

decreases the viscosity of the air and thus leads to less pressure

R = (8 x length x viscosity)/(pi x r^4)
∆P = Q x R

31

Primary pulmonary hypertension is due to

BMPR2 mutation -> increased smooth muscle proliferation

Loss of function mutation where normally BMPR2 regulates growth and lose radius

32

Causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension (6)

COPD/fibrosis (vasoconstriction w/ low alveolar oxygen)
Mitral stenosis(feeds back)

Autoimmune (infammation -> intimal fibrosis)

sleep apnea/ high altitude

thromboembolic events

Left to right shunt (increased circulation)

33

Rx for pulmonary hypertension (4)

bosentan/ambriasentan
prostaglandin analogs
Sildenafil - phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Dihydropyradine CCB - nifedipine

34

Adult Hemoglobin is normally made out of?

How does it compare to fetal hemoglobin?

4 globin molecules (2 alpha 2 beta)
w/ 4 heme molecules

Fetal hemaglobin(2 alpha 2 gamma) has a higher preference for oxygen by being less affinity high 2,3 BPG, allows acquiring of oxygen from

35

2 types of states hemoglobin can be in and what favors each state

Taut - favors tissue and unloading
- in the presence of high: H, temp, 2,3 BPG, CO2

relaxed form favors O2 binding
-in the presence of low CO2, how H concentration and temp and 2,3 BPG

36

Hard working muscles leads to what type of hemoglobin state?

taught form and unloading of oxygen

lactic acidosis, low CO2, increased temp and metabolites of oxidation (2,3 BPG)

37

Methoglobin is what?

Ferric form (Fe 3+), oxidized iron in the hemoglobin instead of ferrous (Fe+2) form

Toxic for it favors cyanide more readily and does not favor O2 as much

Nitrates indue this and is Useful Rx cyanide poisoning w/ thiosulfate to excrete the thiocyante

38

Rx for methomoglobinemia (2)

methylene blue and Vitamin C

Also can give cimetidine over longer time

39

Agents known to cause methoglobin(6)

Methelglobin is the oxidized form of hemoglobin (Fe +3)

Nitrates/nitrities
Antimalarials - chloroquine/primaquine
Dapsone
sulfonamide
local anesthetics - lidocaine
metoclopramide

40

Carboxyhemaglobin is?

Complications associated w?

hemoglobin bound to CO, see cherry red lips
- have decreased oxygen unloading in the tissues as a result

Causes a L shift in the graph due to readily binding of CO to the hemoglobin and thus not able to carry as much oxygen

(thus why pulse ox still shows high % sat because cannot differentiate what the hemoglobin is saturated w)

41

CO causes what kind of shift in the oxygen hemoglobin curve

Left shift
Causes a L shift in the graph due to readily binding of CO to the hemoglobin and thus not able to carry as much oxygen

(thus why pulse ox still shows high % sat because cannot differentiate what the hemoglobin is saturated w)

42

that causes a right shift in the hemoglobin oxygen curve and what does that mean from a oxygen unloading stanpoint

increased: CO2, [H] (low pH), temp and 2,3 BPG causes a right shift. Meaning there is left hemoglobin saturation at a given partial pressure of oxygen favoring unloading into the tissue(taut form)

The opposite is true for low CO2, [H], temp and 2,3 BPG and CO-> fairs Hg saturation at lower arterial pressure

43

Anemia leads to what changes in the the following lab results:

PaO2
Total oxygen content
O2 saturation

PaO2 normal
total oxygen content decreased
O2 saturation normal

44

COPD leads to what changes in the the following lab results:

PaO2
Total oxygen content
O2 saturation

PaO2 decreased
Total oxygen content down
O2 Saturation decreased

Physiologic shunt moves oxygen away from healthy tissue

45

Exercise leads to what changes in the the following labs

PaO2
venous O2

PaO2 normal

venous O2 is lower
-due to increased metabolites -> right shift on the hemoglobin oxygenation curve

46

Normal A-a gradient?
- what does it mean

what may raise A-a gradient

15-10 mmHg
means the difference in the O2 content in the alveoli - the O2 content in the arterial

elevated gradient may mean hypoxemia
-V-Q mismatch
-older age
-elevated FiO2 (giving O2)
-fibrosis

47

If PaCO2 increases and all else is the the same, what happens to PAO2?

It decreases

PAO2 =150 - (PaCO2/0.8)

48

What may change the PI02 in the alveolar gas equation

normally PAO2 = PIO2 (PaO2/R)
-> PAO2= 150 - (PaCO2/0.8)

PI O2 varries w/ atmospheric pressure and FiO2( the % oxygen content)

high altitude lowers PAO2

49

A-a ratio

PaO2/FiO2

normally equals 300mmHg
<200 = severe hypoxemia

50

What may cause normal A-a gradient hypoxeima?(2)

Elevated ?(4)

normal ( low O2 in alveoli -> low O2 in blood)
-elevated altitude
-hypoventilation

Elevated (not transfering)
-fibrosis
-VQ mismatch
-R to L Shunt

51

What is ischemia and what are some causes?(2)

lack of blood FLOW

Obstruction - MI/stroke
Venous blockage - traffick jam

52

What is hypoxia and some causes? (4)

hypoxia is lack of O2 in the tissue

heart failure, low CO output
anemia
hypoxemia
CO poisoning

53

V/Q ratio at the base of the lungs?

is < 1

due to gravity there is excess perfusion to the amount of ventillation

54

V/Q ratio at the apex of the lungs

>1

due to blood falling down, there is excess ventilation ( why TB loves it here)

With exercise the ratio approaches 1 w/ capillary recruitment of the apex

55

V/Q in pulmonary edmea

approaches 0 and is known as a shunt
airway obstruction limits the ventilation no mater how much blood flows through

56

Which of the following circumstances benefits from O2 High V/Q or low V/Q

Higher ventilation to perfusion would benefit more because of capillary recruitment

low V/Q or ~ 0 would be a shunt and no mater how much O2 you give it will not make it

57

V/Q ratio in a PE

Blood obstruction leads to V/Q ratio approaching infinity

The small flow can be increased w/ other capillaries being recruited with the ventilation
-assuming less than 100% deadspace

58

CO2 is carried in the blood how (3)

- dissolve in blood
- Bicarb
- carried on the N terminal of the glob in (NOT heme group) as carbaminohemoglobin
--binding encourages taut form (O2 release)

59

Exercise has what effect on the following?

V/Q ratio
pulmonary blood flow
pH
PaO2
PaCo2
Venous O2
Venous Co2

V/Q-> 1
pulmonary blood flow increases w/ CO
pH drops w/ lactic acidosis
Pa O2 - No∆
Pa Co2 - no ∆
Venous O2 - decreases
Venous CO2 - increases

60

How does hematocrit and Hemoglobin change in high altitude

Increases

40%-> 60% hematocrit
15 g/dL -> 20 g/dL

61

Responses of the bode to high altitude(5)

Increase in ventilation
Increase in EPO -> (increased Hct and Hbg)
Increased bicarb excretion (renal comp for Resp alkalosis)
Increase in 2,3 BPG -> right curve shift
Increase in mitcochondria

62

How does acetazolamide help with acute mountain sickness

acetazolimide augments the loss of bicarb already being losses to help with respiratory alkalosis due less alveolar oxygen pressure -> hypoxemia

63

How many Gs needed to pass out

why do you pass out

4-6 Gs

Due to blood pooling in the legs and abdomen -> lack of return to the heart and lack of brain perfusion

64

Clinical derangements seen in acute MTN sickness(4)

HA
Fatigue
Acute cerebral edema (hypoxia induced vasodialtion)
Acute pulmonary edema (hypoxia induced vasoconstriction -> local HTN and permeability)

65

Chronic MTN sickness see? (6)

increase in RBC mass and hematocrit
increased blood viscosity -> decreased flow
elevated pulmonary artery pressure
-> right sided heart enlargement
-> peripheral artery pressure falls
-> CHF

66

How is the following affected by zero gravity?

blood volume
RBC mass
muscle strength
Cardiac Output
bone mass

all is decreased

Bone mass lost due to loss of Ca and phosphate

67

What is nitrogen necrosis and pathophys

nitrogen necrosis is when N in the air is dissolved into the neural membrane causing reduced neuronal excitability in high pressure environments

Diver -> jovial and carless (drunk)
- loss of strength and coordination

68

Hyperbaric treatment is useful for what 4 conditions

CO poisoning
Decompression sickness
Gas gangrene - clostridium
Osteomyolitis

69

Symptoms of decompression sickness(3)

Pain
->in the joints, and muscles of arms/legs
Neurologic symptoms
-> dizziness, paralysis, syncope
Chokes
-> SOB, pulmonary edema and death

70

Virchows triad -> risk of DVT

hypercoagability
-post partum, sickle cell, polycythemia, CHF, estrogen

Stasis
-post op, long trips, pregnancy

Endothelial damage
- fracture, infection, post op

71

Symptoms of DVT

swollen foot or ankle +/-:
-pain
-homan's sign - pain with calf dorsiflexion
-palable cord

72

Diagnosis of DVT?(2)

-D dimer if low probability
-compression US if high

73

Rx for DVT

heparin or enoxaparin until the Warfarin is therapeutic

74

PE symptoms(5)

can mimic?

Pleuritic chest pain*
SOB*
cough
hemptysis - rare
fever

tachypenia*
tachycardia*
acute mental status ∆*

MI


75

Studies that can help diagnosis a PE (6)

elevated D dimer
large A-a gradient
EKG
CT
VQ scan
pulmonary angiogram

76

What is seen in 20% of PE EKGs

S1Q3T3
-acute pressure an R ventricle overload

wide S on lead 1

Lead 3:
large Q and inverted T wave

77

Causes of emboli and respective sources(6)

Fat emboli - long bone fractures and liposuction

Bacteria - endocarditis

amniotic fluid - post partum

Thrombi - vichows triad

tumor

air- IV(rarely); the bends

78

A negative D dimer tells you what?

rules out clotting and PE for lack of fibrin degeneration products, plasmin is not dissolving things

Positive does not tell you much

79

Primary pneumothorax is due to?

tall younger thin males that have blebs that rupture

no lung disease prior

80

obstructive lung disease:

FEV1
FVC
FEV1/FVC
TLC

FEV1 decreased a lot
FVC decreased
Ratio is decreased - less than 80%

TLC is increased

81

Restrictive lung disease

FEV1
FVC
FEV1/FVC
TLC

FEV1 decreases the same amount as FVC. FVC may a little more ->

Normal to slightly increased ratio

TLC is decreased

82

blue bloater

chronic bronchitis
hypoxemia, hypercapneia

83

pink puffer

emphysemia
hyperventilation, dypsnea

84

Most common cause of pulmonary hypertension?

COPD

85

chronic bronchitus is defined clinically as

Productive cough > 3months over 2 years

86

Reid2 ty index

Measure of chronic bronchitis where goblet cells hypertrophied to greater than 50% the distance of the bronchial wall

87

chronic bronchitis pathophysiology

a form a COPD (blue bloater), the patin has constant exposure to som irritant leading to mucal hyperplasia and narrowing of bronchial wall

-> hypoxemia, wheezes, crackles, cyanosis, and late onset dypsnea

88

Emphysema pathophysiology

destruction of lung parenchyma either through increased elastase activity w/ lack of alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency or due to smoking leads to increased lung compliance and enlargement of air spaces

NOT cyanotic

89

2 types of emphysema and etiologies

Panacinar in the lower lung fields is associated w/ alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

Centriacinar is in the upper lung fields and associated w/ smoking

90

Have a patient w/ history of emphysema that presents with acute exacerbated SOB be worried of?

pneumothorax

91

Key feature of asthma as an obstructive lung disease

it is reversible

92

Curschmanns spirals

sloughed off epithelium that forms mural plugs in asthma

93

Charcot leyden crystals

breakdown of eosinophils from inflammation associated w/ asthma

94

Findings in asthma

cough, wheeze, tachypnea, dypsnea, hypoxemia, low I/E ratio, pulsus paradoxis

95

Pulsus paradoxis is?

Associated w?

smaller pals pressure associated with decrease L ventricular filling due to overfilling of the R ventricle upon inspiration

asthma

96

Bronchiectasis is associated w/ what pathology(4)

kartageners syndrome
CF
Smoking
allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

97

Bronchiectasis pathophysiology

chronic necrotizing infection of bronchi -> permanently dilated airways w/ purulent sputum discharge

abcesses

98

Concern w/ beta 2 agonists?

there is some spillover to beta 1, levabuterol has less

see tachycardia and arrhythmia at higher doses

99

adenosine may not work in emergency cardio situations due to the presence of what other drug>

Theophylline

100

If a patient is having to use their albuterol inhaler more than 2x/week consider adding on a

inhaled steroid
-fluticasone
-beclomethasone
-budesonide

101

antihistamine used in N/V

promethazine

102

antihistamine used in vertago

meclizine

103

antihistamine used in appetite stimulation

cyproheptadine

104

Expectorants (2)

Guaifenesin
N acytelcysteine

105

Types of restrictive lung disease
(3 general categories)

Poor breathing mechanics
-poor muscular effort(Guillian barrie, myasthenia gravis, polio)

-poor structural apparatus (scoliosis, kyphosis, obesity)

Interstitial lung disease
-ARDS
-Neonatal RDS
-Pneumoconioses
-Sarcoidosis
-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
-Goodpastures syndrome
-Granulamatosis w/ polangiitis - wegeners
-Langerhans histiocytosis/eosinophilic granuloma
-Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
-drug toxicity

106

Interstitial Lung disease causes (10)

-ARDS
-Neonatal RDS
-Pneumoconioses
-Sarcoidosis
-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
-Goodpastures syndrome
-Granulamatosis w/ polangiitis - wegeners
-Langerhans histiocytosis/eosinophilic granuloma
-Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
-drug toxicity

107

Sarcoidosis associations/presentation

A GREULING Disease

ACE increase
Granulomas - noncaseating
RA - sometimes
Erythema nodosum
Uveitis
LAD (hilar, bilateral)
Idiopathic
Not TB
Gamma globulinema
D- Vit D increase -> hypercalcemia

108

honeycombing of the lungs

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

109

tennis racket shape cytoplasmic organelles

Beirbeck granules in langerhans histiocytosis, eosinophilic granuloma

110

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis examples?

Restrictive lung cause
- organic dust leading to farmers lung or pidgins lung

111

Pneumoconioses (4) and brief cause

Anthracosis - Coal miners lung

Silacosis - sand balding and the mines

Asbestosis - pumbers/shipyards/roofers

Berylliosis - aerospace manufacturing

112

Anthracosis is and associations?

Coal miners lung
-> restrictive lung disease in the upper lobes
-damage due to macrophage response

No risk of CA

113

Silacosis

hisology?
associations?(2)

Eggshell calcification of hilar lymph nodes
-> macrophages respond to silica and release fibrogenic factors -> restrictive lung disease in the upper lung


Associated w/ increase risk of TB and bronchogenic carcinoma

114

Asbestosis

histology (3)

Associations?

see ivory white calcified pleural plaques in the lower lobes

Asbestos bodies - golden brown fusiform rods (dumbbells) w/in

ferruginous bodies - hemosiderin (Fe) laden bode asbestos fibers

Higher risk of
-bronchogenic carcinoma*
mesothelioma

115

golden brown fusiform rods resembling dumbbells found on histology

asbestos bodies

116

Beryllliosis
2 associations

aerospace manufacturing

-> noncaseasting granulomas
-> increased lung cancer risk

117

Therapeutic oxygen in neonatal respiratory distress carries what risk?(2)

retinopathy of prematurity( white reflex due to vascular prolix in the inner retina)

and bronchopulmonary dysplasia

118

Maternal steroids should be given how soon before a premature mother gives birth

24-48 hrs

119

Causes of ARDS

truama
sepsis
shock
gastric aspitation
pancreatitis
toxic gas inhalation
high O2
uremia
infection
heroin overdose

120

the pathophysiology of ARDS

Injury due to (shock, sepsis, High O2, Heroin OD.... ) -> inflammatory cells and mediators and oxygen free radicals
->alveolar damage to the Type I pneumocytes or endothelial cells
-> increase alveolar capillary permeability
-> Diffuse Alveolar Damage and Hylaine Membrane Disease

Which feeds back and causes more damage w/ recruited cell mediators

Immune system causes more damage after the initial insult

121

Complication Risks of ARDS?

DIC and coagulation cascade activation

122

Sleep apnea is defined as

repeatesd cessation of Breathing >10s during sleep -> disrupted sleep -> disrupted daytime

123

Pulmonary HTN w/ Sleep Apnea?

due to hypoxemia and responding vasoconstriction of the lungs can lead to systemic?

124

4 common METS of lung cancer

BLAB

Bone
Liver
Adrenal
Brain

125

Presentation of lung Ca? (variety)

Cough and hoarseness - Recurrent laryngeal
Horners syndrome
Weight loss
coin lesion
wheezing
Dysphagia
paraneoplastic syndromes
-Hypercalcemia w/ squamous cell
-SIADH, Lambert Eaton, and Cushings in Small cell

126

4 traditional tumors and their respective locations

Non small cell
- Adrenocarcinoma - periphery
-Large cell carcinoma - periphery
-Squamous cell - central

Small cell - central

127

Lung Cancers associated w/ Smoking(4)

Large cell
Bronchioalveolar subtype of adrenocarcinoma
squamous cell
small cell/ Oat cell

128

Lung cancers not associated w/ Smoking(3)

Adrenocarcinoma
mesothelioma
Bronchial Carcinoid tumor

129

Most common cancer in nonsmokers and associated mutation

Adrenocarcinoma

- k RAS
CEA +

Subtype bronchioalveolar is associated w/ smoking and presents as hazy infiltrates ~ pneumonia

130

Cancer that may first appear as pneumonia or hazy infiltrate

bronchioloalveolar subtype of adenocarcinoma

131

Highly anapestic, undifferentiated tumor made of pleomorphic giant cells in the periphery of the lung?

Large cell carcinoma

poor prognosis

132

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung presents as (4)

hilar mass in the bronchus
Keratin pearls
Cavitations on CXR or CT
Hypercalcemia w/ paraneoplastic PTHrP

133

Small cell carcinoma presents as (5)

Paraneoplastic
-SIADH
-Cushings w/ ACTH produced
-Lambert Eaton (weakness due to Ab against presynaptic Ca channels)

Central and undifferentiated
Kylchitsky cells - small dark blue cells

myc associated

134

Kulchitsky cells

small dark blue cells in small cell carcinoma

myc oncogene associated

135

Lung tumor associated with right sided heart lesions and murmurs. What also may be seen (3)

Bronchial carcinoid tumor
-neuroendocrine cells secreting serotonin
BFDR

Bronchospasm
Flushing
Diarrhea
R Sided Heart symptoms and murmurs

136

Pancoast tumor may present as(2)

Horner syndrome
-ptosis
-myosis
-anhydrosis

hoarsness (recurrent laryngeal nerve compression)

137

Radon exposure leads to an increase risk of?

Lung cancer - seen in mines and basements

138

Mesothelioma is found where and presents as? (3)

associated w/ apsestosis and found in the pleural lining

hemorrhagic pleural effusions
pleural thickening
psammoma bodies

139

Most common cause of pneumonia in immunecompromised

pneumocystis jirovecii

140

most common cause of atypical pneumonia

mycoplasma pneumonia

141

common pneumonia in alcoholics

Klebsiella

142

common cause of pneumonia in bird handlers

chlamydophilia psittaci

143

often causes pneumonia in a patient w/ a history of exposure to bat or bird droppings

histoplasma

144

Often cause pneumonia w/ a history of traveling to S Cali, New mexico, W Texas

Coccidiodes

145

current jelly sputum pneumonia

klebsiellia

146

q fever pneumonia

Coxiella burnetti

147

Most common cause of pneumonia in children 1 yr old or younger

RSV

148

Most common cause of pneumonia in neonate (birth -28days)

Group B
E coli

149

Most common cause on pneumonia in children and young people

mycoplasma pneumonia

150

Most common cause of viral pneumonia

RSV

151

Wool sorter's disease pneumonia due to

Bacillus anthacis

152

Common cause of pneumonia in ventilator patients and those w/ CF

Pseudomonas

153

lung abcesses are often due to

aspiration of oropharyngeal contents

- anaerobes (bacteriodes, fusobacterium, peptostreptococcus)
-S aureus
-Klebsiella

154

Chylothorax

lymphatic tissue from the thoracic duct that has been damaged leaking into the pleural space causing an effusion

milky white appearance

155

Transudate causes of pleural effusion

Volume overload - CHF, cirrosis
Lack of protein - nephrotic syndrome

156

Exudate causes of pleural effusion

malignancy, pneumonia, callogen vascular disease, trauma

all due to increase vascular permeability w/ inflammation