PX- Chapter 16: Finishes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PX- Chapter 16: Finishes Deck (66):

name the four types of wood flooring (don't describe)

end grain block


what's the difference between plan and strip wood flooring

strip is thin strips that are 2.25" wide typically. Plank is wider from 3.25" up to 8"


what is block flooring

preassembled wood flooring like parquet


which types of wood flooring are considered sustainable

bamboo and palm wood


how do you install a wood floor to allow for expansion

leave a 3/4" gap around the perimeter of the room


how can you protect wood flooring from moisture

add a moisture barrier under the plywood sub floor or put the floor on 2 x 4 sleepers to get it off the slab.


what is the benefit of using engineered floors vs real wood floors

engineered floors are more dimensionally stable than solid wood- they shrink and swell less with moisture


what's the difference between thin set and thick set stone flooring installation

thin sest is 1/8" thick layer of mortar.

thick set is 3/4" to 1.25" thick


when would you use thick set vs thin set mortar for stone tile flooring installation

thick set is better for when the subfloor is uneven or when the stone floor varies in thickness. overall thickness of floor is 1.5-2.5" above the subfloor


what is the benefit of thin set mortar for stone flooring installs

it's cheaper and add less weight to the floor and are faster to install


what can you to for stone flooring to make sure the stone floor doesn't crack if the subfloor moves

install a membrane between the sub floor and the mortar so they are not bonded together.


what type of grout would you use if movement in the floor is expected

latex grout


what are some advantages to Terrazzo flooring

durability, water resistance, easy cleaning, fire resistance and large selection of colours and patterns


name the three types of Terrazzo flooring

standard- most common- small chips
Venetian- medium chips
Palladian- random fractured slabs of marble
Rustic- has the matrix derpressed to expose the chips


for Terrazzo floors, what's the best way to install it if the subfloor might move

sand cushion above the subfloor


what is resilient flooring

formed under heat and pressure to produce a thin material in either sheets or tile


what are the pros and cons to vinyl flooring

durable, resistant to indentation, abrasion, grease, water, alkalis and some acids. inexpensive and easy to install.

can be below grade or above grade

cons- ugly and not very sustainable


what are pros and cons of rubber flooring

pro- excellent resistance to deformation under loads, quiet

con- not resistant to oils and grease


what are the pros and cons of cork flooring

pro- renewable, good for acoustical control

con- needs a really smooth subfloor, needs to be refinished once in a while


what should you test the concrete sub floor for before installing resilient flooring and wood

moisture level, PH level and Alkalinity


what is the most common test to test concrete for moisture

calcium chloride test or moisture dome test- easy and inexpensive- place a mass of calcium chloride below a plastic cover and seal it to the floor. after 60-72 ours, the calcium chloride is weighed and compared to it's pre-test weight


what is the scale of PH and which is alkaline and which is acidic

0-14. 7 is considered neutral. Less than 7 is acidic and more than 7 is alkaline


what is the PH of concrete normally & what should it be for flooring


8.5 up to 9.0


what happens what concrete subfloor is too alkaline

1. can damage a tile install because the adhesive would liquify

2. alkali-silica reaction- the alkaline cement starts to dissolve sand and rock within the concrete and creates a gel like material that creates pressure and can buckle or blister floor finishes.


what are the pros of carpet for a flooring material

pretty, durable, quiet, easy to install, requires less maintenance than many other types of flooring


what are the three basic forms of carpet for installing

rugs, sheet and carpet tiles


what is a typical roll length for a roll of carpet



what is the best and second best fiber for carpets

1. wool- durable, wears well, flame resistant, easy to clean, most expensive
2. Nylon- economical, wear resistant, stain resistant and crush resistant. most popular for residential and commercial carpet


what type of carpet fiber is typically used for outdoor carpet

olefin aka polypropylene. Has a low melting point though


name 4 manufacturing processes to make carpet (don't describe yet)

needle punching
fusion bonding
knitting or custom tufting


what type of manufacturing process for carpet is the most popular and most expensive



name and describe three weaving methods

1. Wilton Carpet- on a jacquard loom- complex patterns. all yarn runs beneath the surface- you bring it up when you want that colour to appear. Heavy and expensive. Cut and loop pile

2. Velvet- simplest form- all of the pile yarn on the face of the carpet. mostly solid colour. loop and cut pile

3. Axminster- made on modified jaquard loom that delivers different colours of yarn at different times according to the pattern desired. lots of patterns and colours. even cut pile


describe the tufting manufacturing process for carpets

yarn is punched through the backing of the carpet with needs- like sewing.

loop or cut pile

can do it fast, inexpensive. The majority of carpets is this method


describe the fusion bonding manufacturing process for carpets

embeds the pile yan in a backing of liquid vinyl. when the vinyl hardens, the tufs are permanently locked in the vinyl. Has no backing because the vinyl is the backing

used mainly for carpet tiles


what is the gauge of a carpet and what are common numbers

the number of ends of surface yarn in a 27" width in tufted carpets- spacing in fractions of an inch between needles across the width of the carpet

5/64, 1/10,1/8 are common for contract carpet


what is the stitch rate for carpet

the number of lengthwise tufts in 1". the higher the stitch or guage, the denser the carpet


what is the pile height of a carpet

the height of the fibers from the surface of the backing to the top of the pile


what is the purpose of a cushion or underpad for a carpet

increases the life of the carpet, provides better resiliency, better comfort, helps with sound absorption and lessen impact noise


what is the most common carpet backing

polypropylene backing yarn for woven carpet


what are the two ways to install carpet

glue down or stretched-in installation


what test does all carpet sold in the USA need to pass

ASTM D2859 or methenamine pill test. Measure the response of a carpet sample to a burning methenamine tablet.


what test does the IBC say carpet must meet

ASTM E648 flooring radiant panel test


what are some advantages of using tile for flooring

durability, water resistance, easy install, easy cleaning, lots of colour choices, fire resistance, fade resistance, can store heat for passive solar collection


what's the difference between ceramic tile and porcelain tile

ceramic tile is made of clay or a mixture of clay. fired at high heat. for porcelain, it's made of clay but it's lighter in colour and generally denser than ceramic clay. fired at higher temperatures than ceramic and for longer which makes it denser and harder than ceramic tile which makes it more durable and less porous and can be used outside.


what is seamless flooring and what are the pros and cons

mixture of resinous matrix, fillers and decorative materials applied in a liquid or viscous form that cures to a hard seamless surface

pr- very durable, very stain and chemical resistance, very water resistance. Usually used in like commercial kitchens and hospitals


how do you rate the slipperyness of flooring

COF coefficient of Friction measures the slip resistance. From 0 to 1. The higher the number the less slippery the surface


what factors can contribute to how slippery a floor is

wet vs dry, shoe material, person's weight, angle of impact and floor contamination


what is the most commonly used test for testing the slip resistance of floors

ASTM D2047 standard method for static coefficient of friction of polish-coated flooring surfaces as measured by the james machine- AKA the James machine test. Most reliable but can only be performed in a lab on smooth dry surfaces. NOT FOR WET OR ROUGH surfaces. 0.5 is the minimum required for a slip resistant floor


what are the components to paint

binder- gives paint inegrity and holes the pigment
pigments- colour
liquid (or carrier)- keeps the paint fluid till it dries- evaporates. it's water in latex paint
additives- gives it certain attrubutes like mildewcides


what are some cons about oil paint

smells bad, might make the paint yellow or crack as it ages, need to be cleaned up with solvents


when would you use an epoxie finish

on something you need to be very durably finished. Like concrete floors. Adheres to metal as well. Resists corrosion


when it comes to paint, what should the designer be aware of for important environmental and safety info

lead based paint removal and VOC volite organic compounds


what year does a building need to be built before that might have lead paint in it



how do you get ride of lead paint in a home

you can cover the wall with a new layer of GWB or repainting it. You should get a consultant in if you think there is lead paint who can tell you the best course of action


what is the amount of VOC in non-flat interior and exterior coatings

380 g/l


what factors about paint determines how many VOC's are aloud in it

the type of coating and the gloss type


what is a typical wallpaper roll width and length and square footage

20.5" wide x 21 feet, 36 square feet


what is a pattern reapeat in wallpaper

the distance from one point to the next instance of the same point in the pattern


what is straight matching wallpaper

when one length of wallpaper is directly matched horizontally and the pattern continues with out moving the paper


what is drop matching wallpaper

if the next peice of wallpaper is lowered to continue the pattern


why would you use a vinyl wallcovering. what is it's roll size

abrasion resistant and satisfies most code requirements for flammability

rolls are usually 52 or 54" wide and 30 yards long


what grades of vinyl wallcovering are there and describe

type 1- light duty- residential and commersial where little or not abuse expected
type 2- medium duty- residential and commercial and institutional where moderate amount of abuse is expected (offices, classrooms)
type 3- heavy duty- public corridors, hospitals


why should you prime the wall before using vinyl wallcovering

on new wallboard to prevent damage to the wall if the wallcovering is removed


how do you seam vinyl wallcovering

double cutting- overlapping adjacent strips and cutting through and removing both. gets a really tight butt joint.
overlap the wallpaper by like 1 or 2 inches, cut through both strips, remove the top strip, then peel back the one side and remove the strip underneath

butting- used for patterned wallcovering where matching is critical (so you can't overlap the wallcovering) or with dark coloured or textured material where removal of adhesive is hard


what's different about fabric wallcovering vs wallpaper

fabric must be backed with some other material to prevent the adhesive from damaging the fabric. Also to give the fabric additional dimensional stability.

Also must adhere to the fire rating codes like being fire resistant itself or be fire-retardant treated.


what are the two aspecs of acoustical panels that you need to select

fabric type- fabric needs to let the sound through so can't be backed. Balanced weaves like jaquards and damasks are good. bad = satin and basket weaves

core material- can be loose or tackable. can be batting or mineral fiberboard

make sure none of these things absorb moisture which causes distortion