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Flashcards in Quality Management Deck (59):

Quality management

Creating and following policies and procedures to ensure that a project meets the defund needs it was intended to meet from the customers perspective


Gold plating

Giving the customer extras (more functionality extra scope performance); not a recommended practice


Prevention over inspection

Quality must be planned in not inspected in


Marginal analysis

Looking for the point where the benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental cost to achieve that quality


Continuous improvement

Continuously looking for small improvements in quality

Includes how we handle project management in an organization


Just in time

Companies have suppliers deliver raw materials just when they are needed therefore decreasing inventory to close to zero

Therefore a company must achieve a high level of quality in their practices otherwise there will not be enough materials to meet production requirements


Total quality management

Encourages companies and employees to find ways to continuously improve the quality of their products and their business practices at every level of the organization


Responsibility for quality

Entire organization has responsibilities for quality

The PM has responsibility for the quality of the product of the reject but each team member must inspect their work

Senior management has ultimate responsibility for quality in the organization as a whole


Impact of poor quality

Increased costs
Decreased profits
Low morale
Low customer satisfaction
Increased risk
Schedule delays


Increases in quality

Increased productivity
Higher morale
Increased customer ear satisfaction
Increased cost and schedule effectiveness
Decreased cost risk


Plan quality management

Defining quality for the project, the product, and project management, and planning how it will be achieved

Looking forward in time

Identify all relevant organizational or industry practices standards and requirements for quality of the project and plan how to meet those quality standards

An output of this process is then quality management plan


Perform quality assurance

Ensure the project team is following the organizational policies standards and processes as planned to produce the projects deliverables / customer requirements

Perform continuous improvement

Find good practices and share with the organization
Looking back in time
PM can evaluate if whether processes need to be improved or modified


Control quality

Examines the actual deliverables produced on the project and to ensure the deliverables are correct and meet the planned level of quality and to find the source of problems and recommend ways to address them

Looking back in time at project results

Identify the need for quality improvements corrective action, defect repair and preventive action


Cost benefit analysis

Weights the benefits versus the cost of quality efforts to determine the appropriate quality level and requirements for the project


Cost of quality (COQ)

Looking at the cost of quality to make sure the project is not spending too much to achieve a particular level of quality

Involves looking at what the costs conformance and nonconformance to quality will be on the project and creating a balance

The cost of conformance should be lower than the cost of nonconformance

Conformance (preventative & appraisal costs) -quality training, surveys studies
Nonconformance (internal & external failure costs) - rework scrap inventory cost lost business warranty costs



The degree to which the project fulfills requirements


Quality tools

Cause and effect diagram
Check sheet
Pareto diagram
Control chart
Scatter diagram


Cause and effect diagram (fish bone)

Used to look backwards as to what may have contributed to quality problems

Plan how the work of quality should be performed to produce deliverables that meet requirements

Graphic with organized series of lines displaying issues that may have led to a problem

Look at the causes of a problem or to identify the best way to plan and clarify the definition of quality
Helps stimulate thinking and generate discussion
Used to explore the factors that will result in a desired outcome


Flowchart (process map)

How a process or system flows from beginning to end and how the elements interrelate alternative paths the process can take and how the process translates inputs and outputs

Graphical representation of a process


Check sheet (tally sheet)

Checklist that can be used to keep track of data such as quality problems uncovered during inspections

Ex how often a particular defect occurs


Pareto diagram

Type of bar chart that arranges the results from most frequent to least frequent to help identify which root causes are resulting in the most problems

Helps focus attention on the most critical problems
Priorities potential causes of the problems
Separate the critical few from the uncritical many



Displays data in the form of bars or columns and helps to identify which problems are worth dealing with and presents data in no particular order or without reference to time


Control charts

These are setup in plan quality management as part of the effort to define quality on the project. They are used in control quality to help determine if the results of a process are within acceptable limits


Upper and lower control limits

Shown as two dashed lines on a control chart and are the limits of acceptable range of variation of a processes of measurements results

Control limits I deviate what is tables versus unstable



Indicated by a line in the middle of the control chart and shows the middle of the range of acceptable variation


Specification limits

The customers expectations or contractual requirements for performance and quality on the project; they are inputs from the customers and must be less strict than the control limits set by the organization; they are outside the upper and lower control limits


Out of control

A data point falls outside of the upper or lower control limit
There are no random data points; these may be within the upper and lower control limits

Lack of consistency and predictability in the process or its results


Rule of seven

Is a ground rule and refers to a group or series of non-random data points that total seven on one side of the mean and tells you that although none of these point are outside of the control limits they are not random and the process is out of control


Assignable causes / special cause variation

Signifies that a process is out of control falls outside of the control limits and requires investigation to determine the cause of the variation


Scatter diagram (correlation chart)

Used to determine the relationship of independent variables such as paint quality, dryer fan speed, and door weight to the dependent variables of drying time

A regression line or trend line is calculated to show the correlation of variables



Involves looking at other projects to get ideas for improvement on performance on the current project and to provide a basis to use in measuring quality performance


3 or 6 sigma

Standard deviation and indicates how much variance from the mean has been established as permissible in a process

The level of quality a company has decided to try and achieve is usually 3 or 6 sigma

6 sigma - 1 out of 1 million doors will have a problem (99.9%)
3 sigma - 2,700 will have a problem (99.73%)
1 sigma - 68.27%


Quality management plan

Determine what quality is and to put a plan in place to manage quality


Quality metrics

The number of items that fail inspection
The variance related to resource utilization
The number of bugs found in software that is being developed
The number of changes


Quality checklist

The list of items to inspect a list of steps to be performed


Process improvement plan

Plan for analysis and improvement of processes and helps save time by analyzing processes to find ways to increase efficiency and prevent problems


Quality project management plan and project document updates

You may go back and Change information about the roles assigned on the project the stakeholders who are significant to the quality management effort


Quality audits

Audit to understand that you are complying with company policies standardized practices procedures and to determine whether the policies practices and procedures are being used effective and efficient


Process analysis

The lessons learned on the first few installations are used to improve the process on the remaining ones. Usually this happens naturally but if not formal process analysis should be planned at certain points in the project


Affinity diagrams

Can help you organize and group results of a root cause analysis

Example in control quality you may have determined the cause of variance product defects or deliverables not meeting requirements you can then use this information in quality assurance to determine whether a change to policies procedures in the quality plan would address the root cause


Tree diagram

Help you organize data, map out relationships decompose processes to find a solution to a problem


Process decision program charts

Let you decompose a goal into the steps required to achieve it. Each step is the reviewed for potential risk


Interrelationship digraphs

Allows you to see and analyze the relationship among numerous different issues


Matrix diagrams

A visual representation of the relationship between two or more sets of items


Prioritization matrices

Useful for decision analysis about process improvements and quality management plan components that may need to change


Control quality

The process of ensuring a certain level of quality in a deliverable whether it be a product service or result


Mutual exclusivity

Two events are said to be manually exclusive if they cannot both occur in a single trial

Example flipping a coin once cannot result in both a head and a tail



The likelihood that something will occur; decimal fraction on a scale of 1 - 10


Normal distribution

Shape of a bell curve and used to measure variations


Statistical independence

The probability of one event occurring does not affect the probability of another event occurring

Example the probability of rolling a six on a die is statistically independent from the probability of getting a five on the next roll


Standard deviation (sigma )

A measure of range and it denotes what would be considered a statistically stable process or output


PMIS related to quality

The pm should recommend improvements to the performing organizations standards, policies and processes
The pm should determine metrics to be used to measure quality
Quality should be considered whenever there is change to the project constraints
The pm should have a plan in place for continually improving processes
The pm must make sure authorized approaches and processes are followed
Some quality activities may be done by a quality assurance or control department
The pm should spend time trying to improve quality
Quality should be checked before a work package or activity is coMPLETE


The United Nations convention contracts for international sale of goods

Governs international sales transactions


ISO 9000

International organization for standardization and helps ensure that organizations have quality procedures and that they follow them.


Occupational safety and health administration

Sets standards for the safety of American workers



Examining a work product to make sure it meets standards


Statistical sampling

The sample size and frequency is done during plan quality management and the actual test is taken during control quality

Check 3 out 12 doors


Design of experiments

Uses experimentation to determine statically what variables will improve quality

Identifying factors that influence particular variables of a product or process


Tools and techniques used in perform quality audits

Quality audits
Process analysis
Affinity diagram
Tree diagram
Process decision program chart
Interrelationship diagrams
Matrix diagram
Prioritization matrices
Project schedule network diagrams or activity network diagrams