Quiz 2 epilepsy Flashcards Preview

SBM neurology > Quiz 2 epilepsy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 epilepsy Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

most susceptible areas of the brain to epileptic activity

frontal (particularly limbic) and temporal lobes

2

in a generalized seizure, the trigger is outside the cortex in the......

reticular formation or thalamus

3

general seizure presentation

- initial tonic rigidity with extensors overpowering flexors
- stop breathing, air expelled through closed glottis
- clonic phase - contraction relaxation
- postictal phase - relaxation

4

autonomic overflow can occur during seizure causing

emptying of bladder and to a lesser extent bowels

5

vitals during ictal phase of generalized seizure

- pupils dilated
- HR and pulse elevated

6

what is seen on the EEG during the clonic phase?

- spike-wave

7

what do the spikes and waves represent in spike-wave EEG?

- spike - massive depolarization and muscle contraction
- wave - relaxation and massive neuronal inhibition

8

how can we distinguish between a primary generalized seizure and one coming from a focal seizure?

- when coming from focal seizure, there can be an aura or unusual motor events before seizure

9

discuss progression of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME)

- starts in childhood with absence seizures
- late childhood/adolescence - involuntary jerking in the morning
- eventually has generalized seizure which leads to diagnosis

10

underlying cause of JME

- genetic mutations that affect ion channels
- at least six variations

11

a generalized seizure is also known as a

grand mal seizure

12

treatment of JME

- respond well to specific anticonvulsants

13

examples of metabolic grand mal seizures

- ionic
- sedative withdrawal
- hypoglycemia
- hypoxia
- hyperthermia

14

when do absence seizures occur?

mostly childhood

15

an absence seizure is also known as a

petit mal seizure

16

absence seizure presentation

- blank staring
- does not remember
- may be eyelid fluttering or chewing movements

17

petit mal diagnosis markers

- spike wave of 3 per second
- can almost always be brought on by hyperventilation

18

when focal seizure involves sensory cortex it usually presents as...

- positive symptom (presence of sensation)

19

hallmark of "complex partial seizures"

- more complicated emotions, feelings or perceptions
- clouding of consciousness

20

what is Todd Paralysis?

- focal paralysis due to post-ictal depression of function in area affected by seizure
- can be difficult to distinguish from a stroke

21

explain characteristics of focal seizure in motor area

- contralateral clonic jerks
- if it spreads, jerks spread to adjacent areas
- jacksonian march

22

presentation if focal seizure in somatosensory cortex

- contralateral paresthesia
- can also "march"

23

what is on the differential for simple partial seizure of the somatosensory cortex?

- TIA
- migraine transient dysfunction

24

giveaways of TIA over simple partial seizure

- old age
- artery stenosis
- no "march"
- history of cardiovascular disease

25

giveaways for migraine over simple partial seizure

- followed by unilateral headache (but headache CAN come after seizure on rare occasions)

26

"march" of migraine vs simple partial seizure

- migraine - minutes
- seizure - seconds

27

presentation of auditory-vestibular partial seizure

- tinnitus (hallucination of sound)
- vertigo

28

auditory-vestibular seizure can be mistake for.... if no convulsion occurs

- inner ear disease (Meniere syndrome)

29

audiometric tests in AV-seizure

- normal in seizure
- abnormal in Meniere syndrome

30

presentation of visual partial seizure

- hallucination in contralateral visual field