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Flashcards in Quiz #2 Terms Deck (27):
1

Orthostatic/postural hypotension

Abnormally low blood pressure that occurs when an individual suddenly assumes the standing posture; it can produce dizziness and fainting.

2

Perineal

The part of the body situated dorsal to the pubic arch and the arcuate ligaments, ventral to the tip of the coccyx, and lateral to the inferior rami of the pubis and the ischium and the sacrotuberous ligaments. The Perineum supports and surrounds the distal parts of the urogenital and GI tracts of the body. In the female the central fibrous perineal body is larger than in the male’ the bulbospongiosus, which is a sphincter around the orifice of the vagina and a cover over the clitoris, does not exist in the male perineum. In men and women the muscles are innervated by the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve.

3

Urinal

An external plastic or metal receptacle for collecting urine

4

Footdrop

An abnormal neuromuscular condition of the lower leg and foot characterized by an inability to dorsiflex, or evert, the foot, caused by damage to the common perineal nerve

5

Void

To empty or evacuate, such as urine from the bladder

6

Catheter

A hollow flexible tube that can be inserted into a vessel or cavity of the body to withdraw or instill fluids, directly monitor various types of information, and visualize a vessel or cavity. Most catheters are made of soft plastic, rubber, or silicon. Kinds of catheters include acorn-tipped catheter, angio-catheter, Foley catheter, and intrauterine catheter.

7

Growth

An increase in the size of weight, volume, or linear dimensions, that occurs as a result of hyperplasia or hypertrophy. 2. The normal progressive anatomical, physiological development from infancy to adulthood that is the result of gradual and normal processes of accretion and assimilation. The total of the numerous changes that occur during the lifetime of an individual constitutes a dynamic and complex process that involves many interrelated components, notably heredity, environment, nutrition, hygiene, and disease, all of which are subject to a variety of influences. In childhood growth is categorized according to the approximate age at which specific developmental tasks are achieved. Such stages include the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood (including the toddler and the preschool periods), middle childhood, and adolescence. There are two periods of accelerated growth: (1) the first 12 months, in which the infant triples in weight, increases the height at birth by approximately 50%, and undergoes rapid motor, cognitive, and social development; and (2) the second, and the months around puberty, when the child approaches adult height and secondary sexual characteristics emerge. Physical growth may be abnormally accelerated or slowed by a defect in the hypophyseal or pituitary gland. (3) Any abnormal localized increase of the size or number of cells, as in a tumor or neoplasm. (4) A proliferation of cells, specifically a bacterial culture or mold. Compare development, differentiation, maturation.

8

Development

The gradual process of change and differentiation from a simple to a more advanced level of complexity; in humans the physical, mental, and emotional capacities that allow complex adaptation to the environment and function within society are acquired through growth, maturation, and learning. Kinds of development include arrested development, mosaic development, psychomotor development, psychosexual development, psychosocial development, and regulative development. 2. in biology the series of events that occur within an organism from the time of fertilization of the ovum to the adult stage

9

Autonomy

The quality of having the ability or tendency to function independently

10

Ego integrity

An acceptance of self, both successes and failure; it implies a healthy psychological state. Despair often precedes ego integrity

11

Regression

A retreat or backward movement in conditions, signs, or symptom;. 2. a return to an earlier, more primitive, form of behavior. 3. a tendency in physical development to become more typical of the population than of the parents, such as a child who attains a height closer to the average than to that of tall or short parents.

12

Maturation

The process or condition of attaining complete development; in humans it is the unfolding of full physical, emotional, and intellectual capacities that enable a person to function at a higher level of competency and adaptability within the environment. 2. The final stages in the meiotic formation of germ cells in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is reduced to the haploid number characteristic of the species. (Meiosis, oogenesis, spermatogenesis. 3 suppuration-maturate

13

Tachypnea

An abnormally rapid rate of breathing (more than 20 breaths per minute in adults), such as seen with hyperpyrexia; also spelled tachypnea.

14

Hypertension

A common disorder that is a known cardiovascular disease risk factor, characterized by elevated blood pressure over the normal values of 120/80 mm Hg in an adult over 18 years of age.

15

Tachycardia

A condition in which the heart contracts at a rate greater than 100 beats/min; it may occur normally in response to fever, exercise, or nervous excitement. Pathological tachycardia accompanies anorexia, such as that caused by anemia; congestive heart failure; hemorrhage; or shock. Tachycardia acts to increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the cells of the body by increasing the rate at which blood circulates through the vessels

16

Blood Pressure

The pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart. Blood pressure is regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms of the body by the volume of the blood, the lumen of the arteries and arterioles, and the force of cardiac contraction. In the aorta and large arteries of a healthy young adult, blood pressure is approximately 120 mm Hg during systole and 70 mm Hg during diastole.

17

Tympanic

Pertaining to a structure that resonates when struck; drum like, such as a tympanic abdomen that resonates on percussion because the intestines are distended with gas

18

Temperature

A relative measure of sensible heat or cold. A measure of sensible heat associated with the metabolism of the human body, normally maintained at a constant level of 98.6 by the thermotaxic nerve mechanism that balances heat gains and heat losses

19

Afebrile

Without fever

20

Hypothermia

An abnormal and dangerous condition in which the oral temperature is below 95 or the rectal temperature is below 96, usually caused by prolonged exposure to cold or damp conditions. Symptoms include drowsiness, lack of coordination, confusion, and uncontrolled shivering. Respiration is shallow and slow, and the heart rate is faint and slow. The person may appear to be dead. People who are very old or very young, people who have cardiovascular problems, and people who are hungry, tired, or under the influence of alcohol are most susceptible to hypothermia. Hospitalization is necessary for evaluating and treating any metabolic abnormalities that may result from hypothermia. Hypothermic patients in cardiac arrest should be rewarmed to 92 before resuscitation efforts are abandoned. (2) The deliberate and controlled reduction of body temperature with cooling mattresses or ice as preparation for some surgical procedures.

21

Antipyretics

Pertaining to a substance or procedure that reduces fever. (2) An antipyretic agent such as drugs usually lowers the thermodetection set point of the hypothalamic heat regulatory center, with resulting vasodilation and diaphoresis. Widely used antipyretic agents are acetaminophen, aspirin, and NSAIDs.

22

Pericardium

A fibrous sac that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great vessels. It consists of the serous pericardium and the fibrous pericardium. The serous pericardium consists of the parietal layer, which lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer, which adheres to the surface of the heart. Between the two layers is the pericardial space, which contains a few drops of pericardial fluid to lubricate opposing surfaces of the space and allow the heart to move easily during contraction. Injury or disease may cause fluid to accumulate in the space, causing a wide separation between the heart and the outer pericardium. The fibrous pericardium, which constitutes the outermost sac and is composed of tough, white fibrous tissue lined by the parietal layer of the serous pericardium, fits loosely around the heart and attaches to large blood vessels emerging from the top of the heart but not to the heart itself. It is relatively inelastic and protects the heart and the serous membranes. If pericardial fluid or pus accumulates in the pericardial space, the fibrous pericardium cannot stretch, causing a rapid increase of pressure around the heart.

23

Atherosclerosis

A common disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, other lipids, and cellular debris in the inner layers of the walls of arteries. Atherosclerosis may be induced by injury to the arterial endothelium, proliferation of smooth muscle in vessel walls, or accumulation of lipids in hyperlipidemia. It usually occurs with aging and is often associated with tobacco use, obesity, high homocysteine levels from eating red meat, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein and depressed high-density lipoprotein levels and diabetes mellitus. The condition begins as a fatty streak and gradually builds to a fibrous plaque or athermanous lesion. The vessel walls become thick, fibrotic, and calcified, and the lumen narrows, resulting in reduced blood flow to organs normally supplied by the artery. The plaque eventually creates a risk for thrombosis and is one of the major causes of coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infraction, and other cardiac disorders. Plaque rupture is usually provoked by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, such as sudden awakening, heavy physical exertion, or anger. Antilipemic agents do not reverse atherosclerosis. Segments of arteries obstructed or severely damaged by athermanous lesions may be replaced by patch grafts of bypassed, as in coronary bypass surgery; the lesion may be removed from the vessel via endarterectomy; or obstructed arteries may be opened by balloon angioplasty or by the insertion of stents. A diet of low in cholesterol, calories, and saturated fats, together with avoidance of smoking, stress, and a sedentary lifestyle, may help prevent the disorder.

24

Vasodilation

An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel. It is caused by a relaxation of the smooth muscles in the vessel wall.

25

Diaphoretic (sudorific)

Pertaining to a substance or condition such as heat or emotional tension, that promotes sweating. (2) A sudorific agent. Sweat glands are stimulated by cholinergic drugs. The pilocarpine is a potent sudorific drug, but it is rarely used for that purpose in modern medicine.

26

Infarct

A localized area of necrosis (the death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply) in a tissue resulting from anoxia (an absence of oxygen). It is caused by an interruption in the blood supply to the area or, less frequently, by circulatory stasis produced by the occlusion of a vein that ordinarily carries blood away from the area. Some infarcts are pale and white because of the lack of circulation. Others may resemble a red, swollen bruise because of hemorrhage and an accumulation of blood in the area.

27

Universal precautions

Precautions designed preventing the transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, and other blood-borne pathogens when first aid or heath care is provided. Under Universal Precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infections. Universal Precautions were initially developed in 1987 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and in 1989 by the Bureau of Communicable Disease Epidemiology in Canada. The precautions include specific recommendations for use of gloves, gowns, masks, and protective eyewear when contact with blood or body secretions containing blood is anticipated.