Flashcards in Religion - Fundamentalism Deck (13)
almond’s definition of religious fundamentalism
arrest erosion of religious identity
Bruce’s general views on fundamentalism
a response to modernization, seeking society-wide obedience and claiming authority if a sacred text
Bruce’s key features of modernization
soceitalisation, differentiation, rationalization, egalitarianism
=> undermining religious influence
Bruce’s explicit ideas in fundamentalism
feel threatened and unable to reproduce their identity, especially if modernization has been imposed (Shah in Iran)
Bruce’s OTHER factors (not secularization)
1. Have a single holy text (easy to claim authority)
2. Common external enemy
3. No central interpretative authority (see 1)
4. Potential recruits (alienated demographic)
5. Political affiliation
1. globalisation > secularization > fundamentalism
2. religion is mariginalized > resentment peaks > seek ‘de differentiation’ to make religion central again
Critiques for Bruce
1. reliant on secularization theory
2. too much emphasis on nature of religion as opposed to structural forces (as said by armstrong)
Almond, Appleby and Sivan
a book with 75 case studies spanning 20 years
fundamentalism in a structural level, contingency and chance, and human choice and leadership.
Structural Level of Fundamentalism
2. education > rationalization
3. communication > secularization; spreading fund. values
4. weak civil society (less outlet)
6. economic problems
7. western imperialism
Contigency and Chance in Fundamentalism
Almond et. al.
illness of the shah in 1979 iran
Human Choice and Leadership in Fundamentalism
Types of leaders?
Almond et. al.
1. ideological catalysers = Khomeini, charismatic individuals
2. organizers/ coalition makers = Bob Jones, Baptist, political & bureaucratic skill
Almond et al, how does fundamentalism rise?
if structural forces create an opening to mobilize a mass of followers, there is a triggering event, and a charismatic and authoritarian leader rises.