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Flashcards in Religion - Fundamentalism Deck (13)
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almond’s definition of religious fundamentalism

discernible pattern
religious militance
true believers
arrest erosion of religious identity
fortify community
viable alternatives


Bruce’s general views on fundamentalism

a response to modernization, seeking society-wide obedience and claiming authority if a sacred text


Bruce’s key features of modernization

soceitalisation, differentiation, rationalization, egalitarianism

=> undermining religious influence


Bruce’s explicit ideas in fundamentalism

feel threatened and unable to reproduce their identity, especially if modernization has been imposed (Shah in Iran)


Bruce’s OTHER factors (not secularization)


1. Have a single holy text (easy to claim authority)
2. Common external enemy
3. No central interpretative authority (see 1)
4. Potential recruits (alienated demographic)
5. Political affiliation


Anson Shupe

1. globalisation > secularization > fundamentalism

2. religion is mariginalized > resentment peaks > seek ‘de differentiation’ to make religion central again


Critiques for Bruce

1. reliant on secularization theory
2. too much emphasis on nature of religion as opposed to structural forces (as said by armstrong)


Almond, Appleby and Sivan
“Strong religion”

a book with 75 case studies spanning 20 years

fundamentalism in a structural level, contingency and chance, and human choice and leadership.


Structural Level of Fundamentalism
(7 factors)

1. secularization
2. education > rationalization
3. communication > secularization; spreading fund. values
4. weak civil society (less outlet)
5. migration
6. economic problems
7. western imperialism


Contigency and Chance in Fundamentalism
(1 example)

Almond et. al.
illness of the shah in 1979 iran


Human Choice and Leadership in Fundamentalism
Types of leaders?

Almond et. al.

1. ideological catalysers = Khomeini, charismatic individuals

2. organizers/ coalition makers = Bob Jones, Baptist, political & bureaucratic skill


Almond et al, how does fundamentalism rise?

if structural forces create an opening to mobilize a mass of followers, there is a triggering event, and a charismatic and authoritarian leader rises.


Giddens on Fundamentalism

“tradition defended in the traditional way”

worrying because of the fact that ethnic groups, now in close proximity, should be more tolerant if conflict is to be avoided.