Flashcards in Religion - Secularization (THEORIES) Deck (25)
Theological > Meta Physical > Positive
*Loss of importance for social solidarity, organic solidarity
*”something eternal about religion”
Rationalization would gradually erode influence of religion
As capitalism is replaced by classless communism, the social need for religion disappears.
(who and what?)
Parsons - loss of functions of major institutions, leads to a loss of centrality of the church.
backed by Bruce.
More social groups, more ability to move between them. Idea of a single universe & role became improbable.
Social Differentiation > Individualism
Undermining traditional hierarchies (priesthood) because the value of individual > position held.
(who and what)
Movement from concentrated local life to large urban societies & bug communities.
Three Effects of Societalisation
*Churches are not focal points
*Unlikely to use priests for support
*Cultural diversity = questions previous beliefs, realize belief is a choice.
Arguments Against Societalisation (2)
Slattery - no straightforward movement from strong to weak communities exists
Also, no statistical evidence.
Good example of growth of Religious Pluralism?
England incorporated scotland and ireland, thus resulting in a mix of religious traditions and plurality of belief, and an inability of one church to dominate thinking in society.
Strong vs. Weak Religion in Plural societies
Dominates lives, culture, and social fabric - not possible
is a choice of the people and has little social impact - thus can be widespread
Argument Against Religious pluralism
Strong Religion isnt a necessary factor for religion to be important, instead just the thriving of religious institutions could indicate religiosity
using increased religiosity as a type of ethnic clash. eg: in a political campaign
useless because it depends on conflict
Using religion during a time of transition to obtain a sense of identity or acknowledgment
migrant asking to build a temple to get societal recognition
useless bc disappears after integration
interest and belief in the sacred being revived as seen in growth of NRMs and NAMs
Stark and Bainbridge
religion may decline, but if so then interest in the supernatural will spike as seen in USA (california) where less churchgoers but more sects.
Sects as evidence of Seculaization
Sects need cut off from society.
you need cut off when society isn’t religious
thus, sects support secularization.
NAMs are NOT religious
“transient gestures of defiance in a secular society”
Bruce on NAMs (2)
1. few people join them
2. does not affect social fabric, thus not evidence of religiosity.
NAMs and scientific orthodoxy
If people are willing to question scientific belief and place trust in faith, then this is evidence of religiosity.
Paul Heelas and NAMs (Theory Only)
People have not become rational, rather search inside for spirituality rather than external things like churches.
“deeply embedded in western culture”
“radicalized version of humanistic expression”
Bruce’s Argument to Heelas
1. just forms of pampering or entertainment, no spirituality
2. only a fashion of people born in the 1960s and will fade as they do.
Rob Warner - conclusive new age
heelas exaggerates and bruce undermines nams.
instead, people are not dogmatically secular nor religiously orthodox and engage in “experiments in post-secularity”