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Flashcards in religion and social change Deck (9)
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Traditional Marxist Take

Balibar & Althusser:
NO SOCIAL CHANGE as religion is OPPRESSIVELY & SUPPORTIVELY maintaining economic status quo.

1. oppressively: imposition of religious doctrine blatantly, especially when it has politico-economic power

2. supportively: religion as a pathway for dissent to be channelized so it never harms the actual rule.


Marxist defense of the “What about Iran” counter

Azad - iranian revolution was an alliance of forward elements such as scholars. religious leaders winning the later power struggle had nothing to do with the initial revolution.


who says both conservative & radical?

canin: both conservative (paternalistic control over the faithful, making sure their focus is off the poverty of the world)

and liberating, in instances where rituals & church spaces can provide the material conditions for the trasnformation of social order


USA movements

martin luther king, heavily aided by the baptist church.

Farley: bus boycotts were organized by black churches



solidarity movement, completely supported by roman catholic church won against the communist party.

then, the church (which was the only thing free of the state) was able to be a place for people to gather & critique the state


Weber's whole take

Protestent ethic, specifically aescetic calvinism--

>> created a high valuation of hard work and the belief that money = being in God's good graces

>>encouraged saving, accumulating wealth

>>began capitalism

>> capitalism needed rationality

>> rationality inside the society, state, offices, industries, everywhere led to disenchantment and loss of religiousness


Critics of Weber

Sombart:Calvinism wasn't about money!!!
Weber: yes, but it produced accumulating behaviour.

Calvinism was it a LOT of places (Switz, Scots) where capitalism didn't flourish at all.
Marshall: yes, but Weber doesn't say that's ALL you need.

Kautsky: captialism predates calvinism
Weber: before Calvinism it was just trading and wealth, not a "distinctive rational beahviour style to encourage entrepreneurship"

finally, "It's actually bc Calvinists were sociopolitically marginalized that they turned to $$, like Jews."


Neo-Marxist, person, theory + example

1. is the oppressed religion different from ruling?
2. do the oppressed share a religion?
3. are legitimate protests channels blocked?
4. is the religious teaching radical?
5. are the clergy associated with the oppressed?

YES: baptist churches of the blacks bv. protestant churches of the whites, USA circa 1950s


Liberation Theology + Example

A type of religion which seeks to aid the oppressed group, usually the poor and fight the existing oppressive political or economic system, originated in latin-america

EG: Nicaragua where the sadinistas were aided by religious groups that preached against a "Sinful economic strucutre"