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Flashcards in Religion-Basic Theories Deck (12)
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Critique Marx (3)

1. Turner - working class hav never been religious according to church attendance or membership

2. religion is often used for social change: liberation theology

3. didnt die during communist ussr (Muller)in world values survey


Define and exemplify Liberation Theology

+ political belief that religion should be used to voice for the oppressed and create social change

+ nicaragua: Somazas (autocrats) and Sudinistas (left leaning revolutionaries) supported by liberation theologists.


Marx- how does religion suppress the people? (3)

1. accept the current conditions
2. poverty is a virtue (trial to redemption)
3. you will have paradise once you die.
4. religious belief n supernatural helping, less inclind to revolution


Religion and symbols. Who and eg?

Religion provides a direct meaning - ring = married and symbolic meaning ring = deep commitment to each other.



Neonfunctionalists main new points (2)

Dysfunction of religion - causing conflict (Bruce), also Glock and Stark "it is divisive"

Religion now serves functions to some groups in certain ways, different than before.


Malinowski (3)

1. explaining the inexplicable: why do we exist, why does XX happen

2. providing certainty in uncertain areas (fishing: fishermen used to pray or do rituals to feel secure when going on dangerous trips)

3. providing rituals which normalizeand help suffering to pass easily.


Alpert’s 4 Functions

Discipline - moral codes
Cohesion - rituals and shared symbols means social cohesion
Vitalization - of identity, and “social continuity” through socialization
Euphony - times of crisis and pain are alleviated through tension management and meaning.


Religion as Tension Management (2 people)

Parsons = in rituals, bring people together through structure. seconded by Malinowski
Farley = psychological support through religion


Kung on religion in general?

Provides a sense of identity moreso than anything else in an increasingly culturally diverse society


Otto Maduro

Neo marxist, religion is crucial and sometimes the only way to bring revolution

“Relative autonomy”

Religion can be conservative - Latin American Catholicism
but people can preach revolution - liberation theologists in L. America


Turner’s interpretations of Neo Marxism

+ guidelines and cohesion for the upperclass instead

+ shared practices makes them feel a class apart with emphasis on marriage and inheritance through religion = continuity to their domination of society


Critique Durkheim (3)

1. Dawson questions validity of study bcsmall aboriginal groups only were used.

2. Big societies <> tribes. doesn't apply to 21st century babey, too complex!

3. religion can create conflict and change and is sometimes divisive as opp to cohesive. (Glock n Stark)