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Flashcards in Religion Pre 1945 Deck (18)
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refers to the rivalry or division of religious lines.


Where did sectarianism stem from

- Protestant reformation
- English occupation of Ireland


Impacts of sectarianism

forced religious practice, education, conscription


Daniel Mannix

major influencer for sectarianism in Australia. He was known for his strong disapproval of violence and was against the idea of conscription.


Establishment of Christianity

- Arrived in 1788 on the first fleet  English convicts (church of England) and Irish convicts (Roman Catholics)


Establishment of Judaism

- Came on the first fleet
- Big influx of Jews post war
- Determined to not let Christianity be the dominant religion
- Established places of worship across all states
- First synagogue consecrated in South Australia 1850
- Services were regularly being held in homes such as that of Phillip Joseph Cohen


Establishment of Hinduism

- Came to Australia in 19th Century
- Hired under indentured (work for fixed term) labour contracts  sugar plantations and worked with livestock
- Religious needs weren’t met or recognised in Australia
- Mainly practiced their religion in homes privately
- Harder for them to fit into society


Bush Brotherhood

• Bishop Nathanial Dawes established the Church of England and was a significant figure in helping the marginalized
• Dawes and his group rode on horseback providing ministry to those living in the rural and remote areas  still actively serves in outback communities


Royal Flying Doctor Service

• John Flynn (highly regarded reverend) established the service
• Aided in the spiritual, social and medical needs of people in the outback
• RFDS embodies Christian ethos such as service, endurance and a dignified life for all people


Education for needy

• Christian groups traditionally sought to help the disadvantaged as a central part of Christian ethos  did this through providing education for the poor
• 1866 Mother Mary Mackillop and Julian Tenison Woods founded the Order of St Joseph to teach the children of the poor


Assistance for migrants

• Migrants were vulnerable in a new place and had no means of supporting themselves
• Caroline Chisholm was concerned with the plight of migrants  provided shelter and protection for young girls and secured employment for them


Great Depression

• Alerted church groups that structural changes were required in the way the state provided social welfare
• Events of the Depression indicated that community support was insufficient in dealing with the issue of poverty
• Churches lobbied the government and the government therefore introduced unemployment benefits


3 acts of education

1. Schools Estate Cooperation Charter (1825)
2. The Church Act (1836)
3. 1880 Public Instruction Act


Public Morality

refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society. Enforced by either law enforcement or social pressures.


Sexual Morality

- Christians were against divorce  breaking vows and eternal bond
- Opposition towards homosexuality
- Laws were inflicted on convicts
- If they weren’t followed you would be publicly humiliated


Temperance Movement

- Movement called upon men to abstain from alcohol
- Women were used to convince male figures to take the pledge as they were most frequently victims of alcohol related problems



advocating observance of Sabbath
- Everyone was required to attend church services
- Intention was to improve the behaviour and morality of convicts
- Created uproar between denominations as they were forced to worship a religion that was not theirs



- Christianity was influential in the banning of gambling in early Australian society because profit by methods other than honest labour was denounced by most Christian denominations
- Catholic Church didn't hold any moral objections, providing it was not excessive