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Flashcards in Repro-Stuff Missed Deck (40):
1

PCOS

characterized by obesity
oligomenorrhea
infertility
enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts

2

Infertility treatments for PCOS patients

Treat with clomiphene - estrogen receptor modulator that decreases negative feedback inhibition on hypothalamus by circulating estrogen thus increasing gonadotropin production

3

Treatment of hirsuitism in PCOS patients

Spironolactone - androgen receptor antagnoist

4

Major risk factor for cervical cancer

Multiple sex partners -- means more exposure to high risk strains of HPV (16, 18, 31, 33)

5

Major risk factors for cervical cancer

Cigarrette smokeing
Lower socioeconomic statis
Early coitarche

6

Mullerian inhibiting factor

responsible for regression of paramesonephric ducts give rise to female internal genetalia

7

Testosterone in embryogenesis

mediates development of male INTERNAL genitalia

8

DHT during embryogenesis

mediates development of male EXTERNAL genitalia

9

Sx: Infant male has small phalus and hydrophalus. Testes in inguinal area and BP and testosterone is normal. What enzyme is deficient?

5-alpha reductase.

5-alpha reductase converts testosterone to DHT.

DHT is reponsible for EXTERNAL male genitalia

10

17-hydroxylase deficiency

results in decreased secretion of cortisol and sex steroids and increased level of mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
-- results in HYPERTENSION and undervirilization of male genitalia

11

Aromatase deficiency

Results in virilization of female infants. Male infants NOT affected.

Aromatase catalyzes conversion of androgens to estrogen

12

DCIS (Ductal Carcinomas In Siute)

precancerous breast lesion
- maligant clonal cell proliferation contained by surrounding ductal basement membrane
- myoepithelial layer of duct is preserved and uninvolved

13

Paget disease of breast

rare form of breast cancer
malignant cells spread from superficial DCIS into nipple skin without crossing BM

14

Sclerosing adenosis

characterized by central acinar compression and distortion (by surrounding fibrotic tissue and peripheral ductal dilation

15

Mammary duct ectasia

characterized by ductal dilation, thickened breast secretions, and chronic granulomatous inflammation in periductal and interstitial areas

16

Sx: HIV positive man (CD4: 280) complains of rectal bleeding, pain, and itching. Single ulcerative mass in anal canal. Likely diagnosis

Human Papilloma Virus
- increased risk of anal carcinoma

17

Hyaditaform moles

- appear as "bunch of grapes"
- result of trophoblastic proliferation
- presents as enlarged uterine, abnormal vaginal bleeding, abdominal comfort
- EXCESSIVE B-hCG

18

Complete mole

46, XX; 46XY
- increased B-hCG
- increased uterine size
- can convert to choriocarcinoma
- 2 sperms + empty egg
- can become malignant

19

Partial mole

- 69 XXX; 69XXY; 69 XYY
- moderate increase in B-hCG
- doesn't convert to carcinoma
- fetal parts
- 2 sperm + 1 egg
- low risk of malignancy

20

Bicornate uterus

- due to failure of paramesonephric ducts to close

21

Paramesonephric ducts

fuse to form uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, and superior 1/3 of vagina

22

Conditions that promote renal calculi

Increased calcium, phosphate, and uric acid

23

Conditions that PREVENT calculi formation

Increased citrate and high fluid intake

24

Patent urachus

due to failure of urachus to obliterate by birth
**urachus is a remnant of allantois that connects bladder with yolk sac
- condition presents with urine discharge from the umbilicus

25

Meckel's diverticulum

- incomplete obliteration of vitteline duct (from yolk sac) which conects small intestine with skin

26

Omphacele

caused by incomplete closure of anterior abdominal wall during embryonic development and presents as ventral opening
- convered by peritoneum

27

Hypospadias

urethral opening located on ventral surface of penis but rarely in scrotum or perinuem
- due to failure of urethral folds to close
- associated with downward curvature of penis
-

28

Gastrochsis

due to inadequate enlargement of peritoneal cavity during life

29

Primary syphillis

painless ulceration (chancre)
- develops 1-3 weeks after contact
resoves in 3 - 6 weeks

30

Secondary syphillis

- bacteremic stage
- develops 5 -10 weeks following chancre
- presents as maculo rash on palms and soles
- condylomata lata (large gray like growth)

31

Tertiary syphillis

gummas (painless, induration)

32

Sx: positive VRDL test + pleocytosis (increase in WBC) in lumbar puncture

- Tertiary syphillis
Pleocytosis in spinal cord = neurosyphillis

33

Sx: young male with purulent yellow-green urethral discharge. Gram - diplococci

N. gonorrhoae

34

Treatment of N. gonorrhoae

Ceftriaxone (for gonoccal infection) +

Azithromycin to treat Chlamydae

35

Candida vulvuvaginitis

- discharge is thick, white & adherent to vaginal walls ("cottage chesse)
- vaginal inflammation
- pseudohyphase
- treatment: flucanazole

36

Bacterial vaginosis

- thin, off-white discharge with fishy order
- no vaginal inflammation
- pH > 4,5
- Clue cells + positive whiff test

37

Trichomoniasis

- malodorus, gray-green thin frothy vaginal discharge
- evidence of vaginal inflammation
- PH > 4.5
- MOTILE trichomonad on smear

38

Causes of Candida vulvugaginits

- antibiotic use
- corticosteroid use
- OCP use
- systemic corticosteroid use

39

HSV-2

infection of sacral sensory ganglia with double stranded DNA virus
-results in recurrent, painful genital rash (genital herpes)

40

Mucopurulent cervicitis with cervical motion tenderness is sign of what?

PID - caused by N. gonorrheae and C. trachomatis
- can lead to ectopic pregnancy or infertility due to salpingitis