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Flashcards in Reproductive System(HD) Deck (67):
1

Puberty

-involves changes in the whole body and psyche
-reproductive system matures and becomes capable of reproduction
-secondary sex characteristics appear
-ends when mature sperm are formed in males
-regular menstrual cycle in females

2

Female

-development of breast occurs first(breast buds)
-first menstrual period(menarche) occurs approximately 2-2.5yrs later(around 11-15years of age)
-growth spurt ends earlier than the male
-hips broaden
-pubic and axillary hair appear

3

Male

-Hormonal changes begin btw 10-16 years of age
-outward changes
-penis and testes increase in size
-grows taller,more muscular
-secondary sex characteristics
-pubic and facial hair, deeper voice
-testosterone levels become constant
-nocturnal emission(wet dreams) may occur, do not contain sperm

4

External Gentials-Vulva

-Mons Pubis
-Labia Majora
-Labia Minora
-Fourchette
-Clitoris
-Vaginal Orifice
-Perineum
-vaginal vestibule
-Bartholins Glands
-Skene Glands
-Vaginal Introitus
-Hymen

5

Mons Pubis

-pad of fat tissue covered by coarse skin and pubic hair
-protects symphysis pubis

6

Labia Majora

-two folds of fatty tissue on each side of vaginal vestibule
-many small glands in this area

7

Labia MInora

-two thin, soft fold of tissue
-secretions from sebacceous glands
-bactericidal
-lubricate and protect the skin of the vulva

8

Fourchette

-folds of tissue just below the vagina
-known as obstetrical perineum
-where episiotomy is done

9

Clitoris

-erectile body
-most sensitive part of female genitalia
-produces smegma(cheese like secretion of sebaceous glands)

10

Vaginal Orifice

-opening/slit into vagina

11

Perineum

-strong muscle area btw vaginal opening/anus
-allows stretching for birth
-site of episotimy

12

vaginal vestibule

urethral meatus-exit for urine

13

Bartholin glands

-lubricates vaginal introitus during sexual arousal,not normally visible

14

Skenes gland

lubricates urethra and vaginal orifice

15

Vaginal Introitus

divides the external and internal genitalia

16

hymen

elastic membrane that closes vagina from vestibule

17

Internal Genitalia

-ovaries
-fallopian tube
-uterus
-fundus
-corpus
-cervix

18

ovaries

-almond shaped,walnut size
-help in place by ovarine and uterine ligaments
-production of hormones,estrogen-development of secondary sex characteristics and endometrial growth
-progesterone stimulates thickening of uterine lining, decrease causes menses
-at birth every female has all the ova that she will have throughout her reproductive years(2milli)
-by adulthood the number is in thousands
-by climacteric(menopause) the ovum no longer respond to hormonal stimulation to mature
function: maturation of ovum during each reproductive cycle

19

Fallopian tube(oviducts)

-passageway for sprem to meet the ovum site of fertilization
-safe, nourshing environment for the ovum or zygote(fertilized ovum)
-functions: means of transporting ovum or zygote to the corpus of the uterus

20

uterus

-hollow muscular organ-fertilized ovum implants and develops into an embryo
-shaped like an upside down pear
-lies btw the urinay bladder and rectum above the vagina
-supported by large broad ligaments
-autonomic nerve supply
-not under voluntary or concious control

21

fundus

rounded soft portion on the top

22

corpus(body of the uterus)

-mucosal lining has the 4 function
-lubricates vagina
-acts as a bacteriastatic agent
-provides alkaline environment to shelter deposited sperm
-produces a mucous plud in cervical canal during pregnancy

23

cervix

-consists of a cervical canal with an internal opening near uterine corpus(internal os)

24

wall of uterus

-endometrium
-myometrium
-epimetrium

25

endometrium

-goveren by hormone cyclical changes
-sloughs off during mentration

26

myometrium

-muscular layer
-helps push fetus out during labor

27

epimetrium(perimetrium)

-outer covering layer

28

vagina

-tubular structure
-muscle and membrane tissue
-connects external genitalita to uterus

29

function of the vagina

-provide passsageway for sperm to enter the uterus
-allow drainage of menstrual fluids and other secretions, provide a passageway for delievery of fetus
-self cleaning: during reproductive years, ph:4-5

30

rugae

-enable stretching during sexual intercourse
-delivery of fetus

31

female pelvis

-two innominate bones
-sacrum and coccyx
-support and distrubte body weight
-support/protect pelvic organ
-form the birth passageway
-pelvic floor has strong muscles that stablize reproductive system
-levator ani=muscle that support structure=kegel exercise

32

gynecoid

-most favorable for delivery
-wide opening

33

android

-wedge shaped and narrow
-more commone in males
-separated by an imaginary line=linea terminalis

34

True pelvis

-dictates the bony limits
-guides baby out the body

35

False pelvis

-support the enlarging uterus
-guides fetus into true pelvis

36

Breast

accessory organ of reproduction
produce milk after birth
-provide nourishment for the infant
-provide maternal antibodies to infant

37

nipple

-toughened producing structure at the end of the breast where milk is exposed

38

areola

darkened pigmentated skin around the nipple
protect the nipple while baby is sucking

39

Turbercles of Montgomery

-small sebaceous glands within the areola
-secrete a substance to lubricate and protect breast during lactation
-15-24lobes
-lobes are separated by fat and fibrous tissues/ coopers ligaments

40

cooper ligement

support the breast

41

lactiferous ducts

-glands pass milk through lactiferous ducts
-ducts open at the nipple
-production of milk under hormonal control

42

hormones of the breast

-during pregnancy-high levels of progesterone and estrogen prepare the glands for milk delivery
-after delivery-prolactin from anterior pituitary stimulate milk production
-while nursing the hypothamlus causes impulses to secrete oxytocin
-oxytocin stimulates the release of the milk

43

hormones

cycle consist of regular changes in secretion of the anterior pituitary gland, ovary and edometrial lining of uterus

44

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone
-comes from pituitary gland
-stimulates maturation of the ovum
-as ovum is maturing estrogen is released

45

Estrogen

when estrogen risies causes stimulate secretion of LH
-estrogen comes from the egg

46

LH

ovulation hormone
Lh is released from the pituitary

47

Progesterone

pregnancy hormone-need high levels to maintain pregnacy
-corpus lutem produced progesterone
-gives build up lining thick and rich

48

Menstrual cycle

-ovulation
-mature ovum released from follicle about 14days before onset of mestrual period
-corpus lutem turns yellow
-secreted incresased quantites of progesterone
-corpus luteum degenerates if not fertilized
-progesterone and estrogen levels decrease
-endometrium breaks down as resilt of low hormones
-results in menstruation
-new cycle begins

-if fertilization occurs
-corpus luteum will continue to secrete progesterone
-endometrium thickens to get ready for implantation of fertilized ovum
-no menstruation occurs

49

Menstual phase(Day 1-5)

-endometrium sloughs off
-fsh is increasing
-progesterone and estrogen are low
-menses lasts from 3-5 days in a day cycle 28

50

Proliferative phase(Day 6-14)

-Fsh increasing causeing increase in estrogen
-estrogen level increases and peaks just before ovulation
-cervical mucous becomes favorable to sperm at time of ovulation
-becomes watery and alkaline and shows ferning pattern
-at time of ovulation, basal, body temp rises

51

Secretory phases(Day 15-26)

-estrogen is present, but progesterone dominates
-progesterone increasing, thickening endometrium

52

Ischmeic Phases(Day 27-28)

-corpus lutem degenerates
-estrogen and progesterone level fall
-blood breaks through endometrial surfacces
-indicating the beginning of another menstrual phase

53

Ovarian phases

Follicular Phase(Day 1-14)
-ovum(follicle develops to maturity
-this occurs under the influence of FSH and LH
-the nature ovum ruptures(ovulation) and is expelled
-ovulation is triggered by a surge of LH induced by the level of estrogen

Luteal Phase(days 15-28)
--corpus luteum develops and produces increased levels of estrogen and progesterone which suppresses growth of collicles in the ovary

54

Follicular Phase(Day 1-14)

-ovum(follicle develops to maturity
-this occurs under the influence of FSH and LH
-the nature ovum ruptures(ovulation) and is expelled
-ovulation is triggered by a surge of LH induced by the level of estrogen

55

Luteal Phase(days 15-28)


--corpus luteum develops and produces increased levels of estrogen and progesterone which suppresses growth of collicles in the ovary

56

Male external genitalia

-penis
-scrotum

57

penis

-expels urine from the bladder
-deposit sperm into female vagina
-contains 3 cyclinder of erectile tissue
-blood is trapped within the spongy erectile tissue to enable erection
-glans penis-sensitive head
-prepuce-foreskin
-urethra

58

scrotum

-sac that contains the testes, epididymis and spermatic cord
-divided into 2 compartments
-suspended from the perineum
-keeps the testes cooler that the rest of the body
-necessary for spermatogenesis-production of sperm

59

Male Internal Genitalia

-testes
duct system
-epididymis
-ductus vas deferens
-ejaculatory ducts
-accessory glands
-seminal vesicles
-prostate gland
-cowpers glans or Bulbouretheral gland
-urethra
-semen

60

testes

-male gonads
-sperm and testosteone is produced
-manufacture male germ cells
-spermatoza or sperm in the seminfious tublues
-secrete male hormone which promotes development of sperm

61

epididymis

-one on each testicle
-stores and carries sperm to the penis
-stores sperm for 2-10days

62

ductus vas deferens

matures sperm go here next

63

ejaculatory ducts

-urethra
-transports both urine(from bladder) and semen(from the prostate) to expelled
-but not at the same time

64

seminal vesicles

-joins vas derens to form ejaculatory ducts
-secretes protein

65

prostate gland

-provides lubrication

66

cowper gland/bulbouretjral gland

-produce secretion to nourish sperm
-protect sperm from acidic environment within the vagina
-enhance motility of sperm
-semen is seminal plasma and sperm together

67

spermatogenesis

-development of sperm under hormonal concern
-amterior pituitary produces LH and FSH
-FSH stimulated production of sperm
-sertoli cell are stimulated to nourish sperm
-LH(intersitil cell stimulatin hormone) cuases lydig cells to produce testosterone
-testosterone also has the following effects, not related to sexual reproduction
-increase muscle mass and strength
-promoes growth of long bones
-increases BMR
-enhances production of RBC
-produces enlargement of vocal cords
-affects the distubution of body hair