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Flashcards in skeletal system Deck (103):
1

Diaphysis

the shaft of the bone, hollow tube composed of compact bone.

2

Epiphysis

enlarged distal and proximal ends of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone that covers spongey bone.

3

Articular Cartilage(Hylaine Cartilage)

covers the articular surface of the epiphyses. within the epiphysis is the epiphyseal disc(growth plate).

4

Periosteum

connective tissue membrane, covers the surface of the bone that is not covered with articular cartilage, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves that pass into the bone, contains bone cells

5

Endosteum

a layer of cells that line the medullary cavity space contains bone stem cells

6

Medullary cavity

space inside the diaphysis of a long bone in the adult it contains yellow bone marrow

7

Yellow bone marrow

found in the medullary cavity of the long bone, most adipose tissue in the adult

8

Compact bone

-contains few spaces
-made up of osteons(Haversian system)
-An osteon/Haversion system is made up of a centeral Haversian canal that contains blood vessels.
-The osteocytes are arranged in concentric rings around the Haversian canal
-The osteocytes are scattered in a hard calcified matrix

9

Spongy bone(Cancellous)

-made up of thin plates of bone called trabeculae
-The osteocytes, matrix and blood vessels are not arranged in concentric circles.
-they are like a sponge with visible holes
-the space contain red bone marrow

10

Bone cells and Calcium

-the matrix of bones is composed of collagen fibers and calcium salts
-the inorganic part of the matrix is constantly being adjusted in order to maintain blood calcium concentration within range

11

Osteoblasts

-make bone matrix(collagen and calcium salts)
-calcitonin increases the activity of osteoblasts which leads to building bone

12

Osteoclasts

secrete acid and enzymes to dissolve and digest bone matrix
-parathyroid hormone increase the activity of osteoclasts which causes bone demineralization

13

The Skeleton

-divided into two major parts
-axial skeleton-the skull, the spinal column and the ribs
-appendicular skeleton- upper and lower extremities

14

Frontal Bone

forms the forehead ad the upper portion of the orbits

15

Parietal Bone

form parts of the sides and the top of the cranium

16

Temporal Bone

-Form part of the sides of the head close to the ears(called temples)
-part of the zygomatic arches(check bone)
-form the only articulation with the mandible
-surround and protect the inner ear

17

Ethmoid Bone

-found btw the orbits helps form the boney structure of the nasal cavity
-a projection of the ethmoid bone is a point of attachment of the meniniges

18

Sphenoid Bone

-Butterfly or bat shaped bone that forms the floor of the cranium, connects the cranial and facial bone

19

Occipital Bone

-forms the back of and the base of the cranium(foramen magnum)

20

Sinuses

-open areas in the bones of the cranium that lighten the skull bones
-provide large area of mucous membranes that secrete mucus which is released into the nasal cavity

21

Mandible

the lower jaw(the skulls only moveable bone)

22

Maxillary bones(2)

-fuse at the mid line to form the upper jaw bone
-the anterior part of the hard palate

23

Palatine bones(2)

-form the posterior portion of the hard palate and contribute to the floor of the orbits

24

Zygomatic bones(2)

-contribute to the rim and lateral wall of the orbit and form part of the zygomatic arch

25

Nasal bones(2)

form the bridge of the nose

26

Ossicles

3 bones in which ear transmit sound

27

Hyoid bone

supports the larynx and is an attachment site for many muscles including the tongue.
-it does not articulate directly with other bones

28

Spinal Column Regions(5)

1) CERVICAL
2) THORACIC
3) LUMBAR
4) SACRAL
5) COCCYGEAL

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Cervical Region(7)

-made up of 7 vertebrae
-C1-ATLAS articulates with the occipital bone
-C2-AXIS

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Thoracic Region(12)

-12 vertebrae that form superior portion of the back. The articulate with the ribs

31

Lumbar Region(5)

-vertebrae that form that inferior portion of the back

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Sacral Region(5)

-vertebrae that fuse to form the sacral bone in the adult

33

Coccygeal Region

in the adult the vertebrae of the coccygeal region fuse to form one or two bones called the coccyx

34

Intervertebral discs

-composed of fibrocartilage, they act as shock absorbers

35

Curves of the Spine(4)

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral

36

Kyphosis

exaggerated Thoracic curvature

37

Lordosis

exaggerated Lumber curvature

38

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature

39

Thoracic cage(Rib Cage)

-made up of the sternum and the ribs
-protects the heart and lungs
-serves as an attachment point for muscles involved in respiration,
-posture and movement of the pectoral girdle

40

Thoracic cage(Rib Cage)

-12 pairs articulate with the vertebral column
-7 pairs true ribs articulate with sternum by costal cartilage
-5 pairs False ribs
-8,9,10- articulate with cartilage of the rib above them
-11, 12 -floating ribs with no anterior articulation

41

sternum

breast bone
-made up of 3 parts
-Manubrium- top oval piece, articulate with the clavicle and first pair of ribs 1
-the body of the sternum- where the rest of articulate 2-10
-Xyphoid- very tip end of sternum

42

Appendicular Skeleton

-bones of the limbs
-and the supporting elements that surround elements that connect them to the axial skeleton
-two regions
-the arm and the pectoral girdle
-the leg and the pelvic girdle

43

Pectoral Girdle

CLAVICLE AND SCAPULA

44

Clavicle

-s shaped bone that joins the sternum anteriorly and the scapula laterally

45

Scapula(shoulder blade)

-a triangle bone(shoulder blade)
-spine of the scapula
-the glenoid fossa(cavity)-makes up half of the shoulder

46

Humerus(bone of the upper arm)

-head of the humerus
-the trochlea
-the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa make the upper shoulder joint
-trochlea and the trochlear notch in the ulna make the elbow

47

radius

in anatomic position lateral to ulna

48

ulna

in anatomic position medial to radius

49

the ulna

-ulna at he proximal end the ulna has
-the trochlear notch which forms the elbow with the trochlea of the humerus
-the olecranon process which forms the point of the elbow

50

bones of the wrist(8)

-there are 8 carpal bones(short bones) that make up the wrist

51

bones of the hand(long bones)

-hand 5 meta carpals
-thumb 2 phalanges
-the other finger have 3
-14 phalanges total

52

pelvis

-pelvis is composite bone that includes bones from the axial skeleton and bones from the appendicular skeleton

53

coxal bone(hip bone)

-fushion of 3 bones
-illium, ishiumm and pubis
-three bones meet to form the acetablum

54

illium

-Forms the upper flared portion of the hip bone
-landmarks: the illiac crest and the anterior superior illac spine

55

Ishium

-forms the lowest and strongest part of the bone
-Landmarks: the ischeal spine and the ischeal tuberosity

56

pubis

forms the anterior part
-the sympphsis pubis (where fibrocartilage meet)

57

Pelvis Girdle

articulations
-acetablum-articulate with head of femur
-sacroiliac-btwn sacrum & illum
-Pubis symphysis

58

pelvis

-bears weight of the body
-point of attachment of the legs to the axial skeleton
-protects the urinary bladder and reproductive system

59

False pelvis

illiac crest and sacrum open anteriorly

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true pelvis

completely surrounded by bone, pubic bone and pubic symphysis, ischium and sacrum
-Greater Sciatic notch- the sciatic nerve passes through it
-Orbturator foramen

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male pelvis

-narrow(funnel shape) the pubic angle is narrow

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female pelvis

-broad and shallow (basin shape) the pubic angle is wide

63

femur

-the longest and heaviest bone of the body
-landmarks: head of the femur, neck of the femur, greater trochanter, lateral condyle, medial condyle

64

patella

knee cap
-sesmoid bone(grows within a tendon)
-embedded in the quadriceps femoris tendon

65

tibia(shin bone)

-shin bone
-longer than the fibula
-its the weight bearing bone
-landmarks of the tibia
-anterior crest
-medial maleolus

66

Fibula

-shorter than the tibia
-non weight bearing
-landmarks of the fibula
lateral to the maleolus

67

bones of the ankle(short bones)

-the ankle is make up of 7 tarsal bones
-the calcaneus (the heel)

68

bones of the foot(long bones)

-5 metatarsals
-14 phalanges

69

stages of Fx(Fracture)

1.Fracture
2.Fracture Hematoma: no circulation at the fx site leads to death of the osteoblasts and periosteum, inflammation and swelling
3. Callus formation: Fibrocartilage callus
4. Formation of bony callus(spongy bone)
5. Bone remodeling

70

Synarthroses

-non moveable joints(fiborous joints)
-suture of the skull
-held together by fibrous connective tissue

71

Amphiarthroses

-slightly moveable joints(cartigeous joints)
-the bones are connected by cartilage ex. the vertebral column and the pubic symphysis(comes into play during childbirth

72

Diarthroses

freely moveable joints(synovial joints)
-bones have space between them called synovial joint cavity
-joint cavity is lined with synovial membrane and synovial fluid

73

Articular capsule

fibrous connective tissue that surrounds and connects the synovial cavity with the articulating bones

74

Synovial membrane

lines the articular capsule

75

Bursae

fluid filled sacs that reduce friction in areas around joints between bones, tendon ligaments and muscles

76

Synovial Joints(6)

diarthoses (synovial joints)
1.ball and socket
2.gliding
3.pivot
4.Hinge
5.Condyloid
6.Saddle

77

Ball and Socket Joint

allows movement around central point
-HIP AND SHOULDER JOINTS

78

gliding joints

bone surface slide over one an other
WRIST AND ANKLE

79

pivot joints

arounds rotation around length of the bone
JOINT BTW c1 & c2 vertebrae
JOINT BTW proximal ends of radius and ulna

80

hinge joint

allows movement in one direction
ELBOW AND KNEE

81

condyloid joint

movement in two directions
joint btw metacarpal and first phalanges
joint btw occipital and c1 vertebrae

82

Saddle Joint

allow movement in two directions
ex joint btw wrist and the metacarpal bone of the thumb

83

Flexion

bending motion that decreases the angle between bone

84

Extension

motion that increases the angle between bones

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Abduction

away from the midline of the body

86

Adduction

toward the the midline of the body

87

rotation

turning around an axis

88

circumduction

movement in a circular pattern(360)

89

supination

positioning of the hand so that the palmar surface is upwards or towards the front

90

pronation

palmar surface downward or towards the back

91

Dorsiflexion

turning the foot upwards or toes

92

Plantar flexion

pointing of the toes or foot

93

inversion

turn plantar surface inward/medially

94

eversion

outwards/laterally

95

connective tissue

1.osseous
2.cartilage
3.fibrous connective tissue, tendons, ligaments, periosteum, perichondrium

96

functions of the skeletal system

support
protection
movement
mineral storage(calcium and phosphorus)
blood cell production

97

Bone markings

-structured features of bones that have been adapted for specific function

98

Bone marking: projections

head: enlarged rounded head of a bone, supported on a narrow portion of the bone
ex. head of the femur

process-large prominent projection of a bone ex the olecranion process(elbow)

crest-prominent ridge or border to which tendons and ligaments attach
ex. illiac crest

spine: sharp projection from the surface of the bone
ex. spine of the scapula

condyle: large rounded process(projection)
for articuation joints
ex the lateral condyle of the femur

99

Bone marking: Depression or Holes

foramen: opening through blood vessels nerves or ligaments pass
ex. foramen magnum

sinus: air filled cavity within a bone sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity
ex. para nasal sinuses around the nose

Fossa: depression in or on a bone
ex. glenoid fossa- socket in which bone in shoulder joint

Meatus: tube like passageway running within a bone
ex. external auditory meatus

100

Long bone(column shaped)

bones of arm legs feet

101

Short bone(cubed shaped)

bones of wrist and ankle

102

flat bone(thin flat curved)

ribs,shoulder blade,hip bones, cranial bones

103

irregular bones

facial bones and vertebra