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Flashcards in skeletal system Deck (103)
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1

Diaphysis

the shaft of the bone, hollow tube composed of compact bone.

2

Epiphysis

enlarged distal and proximal ends of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone that covers spongey bone.

3

Articular Cartilage(Hylaine Cartilage)

covers the articular surface of the epiphyses. within the epiphysis is the epiphyseal disc(growth plate).

4

Periosteum

connective tissue membrane, covers the surface of the bone that is not covered with articular cartilage, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves that pass into the bone, contains bone cells

5

Endosteum

a layer of cells that line the medullary cavity space contains bone stem cells

6

Medullary cavity

space inside the diaphysis of a long bone in the adult it contains yellow bone marrow

7

Yellow bone marrow

found in the medullary cavity of the long bone, most adipose tissue in the adult

8

Compact bone

-contains few spaces
-made up of osteons(Haversian system)
-An osteon/Haversion system is made up of a centeral Haversian canal that contains blood vessels.
-The osteocytes are arranged in concentric rings around the Haversian canal
-The osteocytes are scattered in a hard calcified matrix

9

Spongy bone(Cancellous)

-made up of thin plates of bone called trabeculae
-The osteocytes, matrix and blood vessels are not arranged in concentric circles.
-they are like a sponge with visible holes
-the space contain red bone marrow

10

Bone cells and Calcium

-the matrix of bones is composed of collagen fibers and calcium salts
-the inorganic part of the matrix is constantly being adjusted in order to maintain blood calcium concentration within range

11

Osteoblasts

-make bone matrix(collagen and calcium salts)
-calcitonin increases the activity of osteoblasts which leads to building bone

12

Osteoclasts

secrete acid and enzymes to dissolve and digest bone matrix
-parathyroid hormone increase the activity of osteoclasts which causes bone demineralization

13

The Skeleton

-divided into two major parts
-axial skeleton-the skull, the spinal column and the ribs
-appendicular skeleton- upper and lower extremities

14

Frontal Bone

forms the forehead ad the upper portion of the orbits

15

Parietal Bone

form parts of the sides and the top of the cranium

16

Temporal Bone

-Form part of the sides of the head close to the ears(called temples)
-part of the zygomatic arches(check bone)
-form the only articulation with the mandible
-surround and protect the inner ear

17

Ethmoid Bone

-found btw the orbits helps form the boney structure of the nasal cavity
-a projection of the ethmoid bone is a point of attachment of the meniniges

18

Sphenoid Bone

-Butterfly or bat shaped bone that forms the floor of the cranium, connects the cranial and facial bone

19

Occipital Bone

-forms the back of and the base of the cranium(foramen magnum)

20

Sinuses

-open areas in the bones of the cranium that lighten the skull bones
-provide large area of mucous membranes that secrete mucus which is released into the nasal cavity

21

Mandible

the lower jaw(the skulls only moveable bone)

22

Maxillary bones(2)

-fuse at the mid line to form the upper jaw bone
-the anterior part of the hard palate

23

Palatine bones(2)

-form the posterior portion of the hard palate and contribute to the floor of the orbits

24

Zygomatic bones(2)

-contribute to the rim and lateral wall of the orbit and form part of the zygomatic arch

25

Nasal bones(2)

form the bridge of the nose

26

Ossicles

3 bones in which ear transmit sound

27

Hyoid bone

supports the larynx and is an attachment site for many muscles including the tongue.
-it does not articulate directly with other bones

28

Spinal Column Regions(5)

1) CERVICAL
2) THORACIC
3) LUMBAR
4) SACRAL
5) COCCYGEAL

29

Cervical Region(7)

-made up of 7 vertebrae
-C1-ATLAS articulates with the occipital bone
-C2-AXIS

30

Thoracic Region(12)

-12 vertebrae that form superior portion of the back. The articulate with the ribs