Nervous System Flashcards Preview

VEEB > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (115):
1

Functions of the Nervous System?

-Coordination and Control
-Detects Stimuli
-Responds to Stimuli
-Integrates executive functions(reasoning, decsion making skills

2

Central Nervous System includes:

-Brain
-Spinal Cord

3

Peripheral Nervous System includes:

-Cranial Nerves: connect with the brain
-Spinal Nerves: connect with the spinal cord

4

Somatic Nervous System

-sensory receptors and nerves are concerned with changes in the external environment
-under voluntary control
-effectors are skeletal muscles

5

What is an Effector?

tissue or organ that responds to a nervous system command

6

Autonomic Nervous system

-sensory receptors amd nerves(sensory and motor) concerned with changes in the internal environment
-effectors of the autonomic nervous system are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers
-under involuntary control
-effectors are cardiac muscle, visceral muscle and glands
-divided into: -sympathetic nervous system
-parasympathetic nervous system

7

Autonomic Nervous system: SYMPATHETIC

-FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE

8

Autonomic Nervous system: PARASYMPATHETIC

-REST AND DIGEST RESPONSE(FEED AND BREED)

9

Structural Cells(Neuroglia)

-cells of the nervous system
-support and protect
-no electrical

ex:Astrocytes,Microglia,Oliodendroglia/Schwann Cells,Ependymal Cells

10

Astrocytes(Structural Cells/Neuroglia)

-star shaped cells
-help to form the blood brain barrier
-act as phagocyte

11

Microglia(Structural Cells/Neuroglia)

-phagocytosis of pathogens and tissue debris

12

Oligodendroglia/Schwann Cells(Structural Cells/Neuroglia)

-produce myelin sheath which covers the axons of neuron
-in PNS Schwann cells cytoplasm and nucleus surround the myelin sheath and are called the neurilemma

13

Ependymal Cells(Structural Cells/Neuroglia)

-Line the ventricles of the brain and make CSF
-CSF flows in and around the brain

14

Functional Cells(Neurons)

-parts of neuron include: Cell body, Dendrites,Axon

15

Cell bod(Neuron)

-contains nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles

16

Dendrites(Neuron)

-short highly branched extentions of the cell body
-bring information into the cell body

17

Axon(Neuron)

-thin long projections of the cell body
-taked information away from the cell body

18

Parts of the Axon:

-Myelin Sheath:white fatty material insulates the axon
-schwann cells
-neurolemma(schwann cells): cytoplasm and nucleus of the schwann cells
-Nodes of Ranvier-spaces on the axon between the schwann cells

19

White Matter

-areas of the myelinated axons forms many neurons

20

Gray Matter

-cell bodies of neuron
-dendrites
-unmyelinated axons
-neuroglia

21

Characteristics of Neurons?

-Irritability: abillity of a neuron to respond to a stimulus by producing and electrical signal

-conductivity: ability to conduct an electical signal

22

Classification of Neurons?

-Sensory(Afferent)-brings info to CNS
-Motor(Efferent)- takes info away from CNS
-Interneurons- relay info with in the CNS

23

Nerves?

-Neuron fibers(axon and dendrites) grouped together into bundles
-in the PNS the bundle is a nerve
nerves can be sensory(afferent),motor(efferent), or mixed

24

Tracts?

-Neuron fibers(axon and dendrites) grouped together into bundles
-in the CNS the bundle is a tract

25

Resting potential-membrane is polarized?

-cell membrane of a neuron is polarized(it has an electric charge when it is) at rest

26

Action potential-wave of depolarization?

-when the neuron has recieved enough -stimulation to generate an action potential the charge of segment of the cell membrane is changed

27

Repolarization?

-return to resting potential
-wave of repolarization follows the wave of depolarization

28

All or None Principle?

-the neuron will either recieve enough stimulation to generate an action potential or will not

29

Mechanism of impulse transmission?

-impulse can be transmitted along the length of the axon by traveling like a wave
-leaping from node to node(saltatory conduction)

saltatory conduction:
-faster and more efficent, rquired myelinated axons

30

Neurotransmitters?

-chemicals that convery info. across the synapse
-can be excitatory or inhibitory
-epinephrine/nor-epinephrine(adrenalin/nor-adrenalin)
-action depends on receptos in the effector

31

Epinephrine/Nor-Epinephrine(neurotransmitter)?

-stimulates HR
-dilates airway
-dilates pupil
-slows digestion

32

Acetylcholine(neurotransmitter)?

-neurotransmitter released at the "NMJ"

33

Serotonin(neurotransmitter)?

-invovled in mood

34

Dopamine(neurotransmitter)?

-invovled in mood
-invovled in mobility

35

Spinal Cord?

-located within the vertebral column extends from the occipital bone to about L1

36

Structure of the spinal cord?

-grey matter(nerve cell bodies and interneurons): located in the center of the spinal cord. area of gray matter is shaped like a butterfly

-white matter(myelinated axon): found on outside of the spinal cord and consist of nerve tracts
-cerebral spinal fluid flows in the central canal

37

Dorsal root ganglion(collection of nerve cell bodies)?

-ventral root=motor=efferent
-dorsal root=sensory=afferent

38

Reflex Arc?

-reflex:involuntary response to a stimulus
-many reflexes are protective
-many reflexes are spinal nerves
-component of a reflex arc:
1.receptor
2.afferent neuron
3.efferent neuron
4.effetor

39

Spinal Nerves(PNS)

-31 pairs
-connect the CNS w/ receptors & effectors
-they are mixed nerves
-named according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge
-after they exit from the verterbraql column they divide into many fibers.
-the fibers from served nerves converge to form networks called plexus
-vertebral column: 8 cervical spinal nerve pairs (C1-C8), 12 thoracic pairs (T1-T12), 5 lumbar pairs (L1-L5), 5 sacral pairs (S1-S5), and 1 coccygeal pair.

40

Plexuses(Branches of Spinal Nerves)

1-Cervical Plexus: innervates the skin and muscles of the neck,shoulder, and the diaphragm. major nerve: phrenic nerve: motor impules to diaphragm.

2-Brachial Plexus: innervates the skin and muscles of the upper extremities

3-Lumbosacral Plexus: innervates skin and muscles of the lower torso and lower extremities. major nerve: sciatic nerve

*damage to spinal cord happens from that point down.

41

Dermatome

-region of the skin that supplies sensory info. to one pair of the spinal nerves

42

Autonomic(involuntary) nervous system
(division of the PNS)

-effectors are: -smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
-has two functional parts
-sympathetic and parasympathetic

43

sympathetic

-fight or flight or stress reponse
-neurotransmitter:epinephrine/nor epinephrine
-The E's(emergency,excitemetn,embarrassment,exexercise)

44

parasympathetic

-rest and digest or feed/breed
-responsible for homeostasis
-SLUDD: things parasympathetic promotes
-salvation
-lacrimation
-urination
-digestion
-defecation

45

Effects of sympathetic system on selected organs:

pupils of the eye: dilation
sweat glands: stimulation
digestive glands: inhibition
heart: increased rate and strength of beat
Bronchi of lungs: dilation
Muscles of digestive system: decreased peristalsis
kidneys: decreased activity
urinary bladder:relaxation to prevention urination
liver: increased release of glucose
blood vessels: increased blood flow to skeletal muscles and resp. system

46

Effects of the parasympathtic system on selected organs:

pupils of the eye: consrtiction
sweat glands: none
digestive glands: stimulation
heart: decreased rate of beat
Bronchi of lungs: constriction
Muscles of digestive system: increased peristalsis
kidneys: none
urinary bladder: contracting and empyting
liver:none
blood vessels:increased blood flow to Gi system

47

Fibers for the sympathetic nervous system orginate in?

Thorasic and lumbar

48

Fibers for the parasympathetic originate in?

Cervical and sacral

49

Meninges

protective covering of the brain

50

Dura mater

-outer most layer
-lines cranium
-thickest/toughest layer

51

Arachnoid

-arachnoid villi
-middle layer
-finger-like projections
-whose job is to absorb CSF

52

Pia Matter

-the deepest layer
-contains many blood vessels supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain and spinal cord

53

Cerebral Spinal Fluid-CSF

-mad eby epyndemal cells in the choroid plexues of the cerebral ventricles
-absorbed by the archanoid villa
-functions: cushions, transports 02 and nutrients
-transports metabolic waste products
-characteristics: clear, no RBC, contains glucose, sterile, contains a few WBCs
-cloudy=menigitis
-yellow=liver problems

54

Ventricles

-spaces within the brain
-four ventricles
-two lateral ventricles
-one in each cerebral hemispher drain to the third ventricle
-the third ventricle is medial and it drains into the 4th ventricle
-the 4th ventricle is medial and inferior to the third ventricle
-each ventricle contains a vascular network called the choroid plexus
-the choroid plexus along with epydemal cells form the CSF

55

Cerebrum

-largest part of the brain
-seat of intelligence: writing, reading,speaking,calculations,planning and executive functions
-site of memory and learning
-surface of the cerebrum is covered with grey matter called the cerebral cortex
-white matter is under the cortex
-grey matter on the outside
-surface folds called gyri(gyrus) which are seperated by grooves called sulci(sulcus)
-the cerebrum is divided into 2 hemisphere right and left by the longtitudinal fissure
-the two hemispheres are connected by aband of white matter called corpus collosum
-each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes
-the lobes are named after cranial bones directly over them

56

frontal lobe

-large in humans
-contains the primary motor area(conscious control of skeletal muscle)
-decussation(crossing over)=right hemisphere controls left side of the body(contralateral control)
-two motor speech centers
-brocca(oral speech)
-written speech area

57

partietal lobe

-superior lobe of each hemisphere
-seperated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus
-separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus
-contains the primary sensory area
-interpretation of sensory data

58

Temporal lobe

-lateral cortex
-inferior to the parital lobe
-auditory receiving and interpretation area
-wernicke area=speech comprehension area
-olfactory receivin and interpretation area(smell)

59

occipital lobe

-the most posterior and inferior lobe
-visual recieving and interpretation area
--"mom has eyes in backa head"

60

dienchephalon

-location btw cerebrum and brain stem
-contains pineal gland/limbic system
-functional and structural link btw the cerebral hemisphere and the brain stem
--pineal gland secrets hormone called melotonin
-melotonin-invovled in sleep cycle , circadian rhythmn
-limbic system responsible for emotions, and emtional control
-diencephalon divided into thalmaus/hypothalamus

61

thalamus

-surrounds the third ventricle
-sorts and directs sensory input to appropriate area of the cerebral cortex
-acts as a filter

62

hypothalamus

-forms the floor of the third vventricle
-maintains homeostasis by controlling: body temp,sleep,appetite,water balance,emotions
-controls the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
-influences HR,respiration,vasoconstriction/vasodilation(BP),respiration,digestion,thirst
-interface btw the cns and the endocrine system(piturary gland)

63

brain stem(midbrain,pons,medulla ob)

-connects the cerebrum and the diencephalon with the spinal cord

64

midbrain

-extends from the lower part of the diencephalon to the pons
-contains the reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing

65

pons

-bridge between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain
-helps regulate breathing rate and rhythmn

66

medulla oblongata

-connects pons and spinal cord
-links the brain and spinal cord functionally
-has centers that control vital functions:
-resp. center,cardiac center,vasomotor center
-medulla called vital center because of R,HR,BP

67

cerebellum(little brain)

-located under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
-divided into two hemispheres
-primarly concerened voluntar muscles
-intergrates visual,auditory,and skeletal muscle location information to produce a smooth coordinated response
-maintain balance and muscle tone

68

cranial nerves(12 pairs)

-emerge from brain
-arrange from anterior to posterior
-some are all sensory
-some are all motor
-some are mixed/both

*some say marry money by my brother say bad business mary money

69

sensory vs. mixed nerves

-sensory- 2 types of sensory are gathered by cranial nerves
1-special senses-vision,hearing,olfaction,taste
2-general senses-touch,temp,pain,muscle sense, texture, pressure

motor command
-somatic motor-concenrend with voluntary muscles
-visceral motor-involuntrary muscles

*some say marry money but my brother says bad busnisess marry money

70

cranial nerves

1)Olfactory: sense of smell
2)optic: sense of sight
3)oculomotor:movement of the eyeball;constriction of pupil in bright light or for near vision
5)trigeminal-sensation in face, eyes, scalp,and teeth, contraction of muscles
7)facial(gustation nerve): sense of taste, contraction of facial muscles(expression), secretion of saliva and tears
8)acoustic(vestibulocochlear): sense of hearing, sense of equilibrium-inner ear
9)glossopharyngeal:sense of taste, controls swallowing muscles, gag reflex(risk for aspiration)
10)vagus(parasympathetic):sense in cardiac,respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes, motor impulses to larynx(speaking), decrease heart rate,peristalsis, and increase in digestive secretions

71

1)Olfactory:

sense of smell

72

2)optic:

sense of sight

73

3)oculomotor:

movement of the eyeball;constriction of pupil in bright light or for near vision

74

5)trigeminal:

-sensation in face, eyes, scalp,and teeth, contraction of muscles

75

7)facial(gustation nerve):

sense of taste, contraction of facial muscles(expression), secretion of saliva and tears

76

8)acoustic(vestibulocochlear):

sense of hearing, sense of equilibrium-inner ear

77

9)glossopharyngeal:

sense of taste, controls swallowing muscles, gag reflex(risk for aspiration)

78

10)vagus(parasympathetic):

sense in cardiac,respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes, motor impulses to larynx(speaking), decrease heart rate,peristalsis, and increase in digestive secretions

79

Autonomic(involuntary) nervous system
(division of the PNS)

-effectors are: -smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
-has two functional parts
-sympathetic and parasympathetic

80

sympathetic

-fight or flight or stress reponse
-neurotransmitter:epinephrine/nor epinephrine
-The E's(emergency,excitemetn,embarrassment,exexercise)

81

parasympathetic

-rest and digest or feed/breed
-responsible for homeostasis
-SLUDD: things parasympathetic promotes
-salvation
-lacrimation
-urination
-digestion
-defecation

82

Effects of sympathetic system on selected organs:

pupils of the eye: dilation
sweat glands: stimulation
digestive glands: inhibition
heart: increased rate and strength of beat
Bronchi of lungs: dilation
Muscles of digestive system: decreased peristalsis
kidneys: decreased activity
urinary bladder:relaxation to prevention urination
liver: increased release of glucose
blood vessels: increased blood flow to skeletal muscles and resp. system

83

Effects of the parasympathtic system on selected organs:

pupils of the eye: consrtiction
sweat glands: none
digestive glands: stimulation
heart: decreased rate of beat
Bronchi of lungs: constriction
Muscles of digestive system: increased peristalsis
kidneys: none
urinary bladder: contracting and empyting
liver:none
blood vessels:increased blood flow to Gi system

84

Fibers for the sympathetic nervous system orginate in?

Thorasic and lumbar

85

Fibers for the parasympathetic originate in?

Cervical and sacral

86

Meninges

protective covering of the brain

87

Dura mater

-outer most layer
-lines cranium
-thickest/toughest layer

88

Arachnoid

-arachnoid villi
-middle layer
-finger-like projections
-whose job is to absorb CSF

89

Pia Matter

-the deepest layer
-contains many blood vessels supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain and spinal cord

90

Cerebral Spinal Fluid-CSF

-mad eby epyndemal cells in the choroid plexues of the cerebral ventricles
-absorbed by the archanoid villa
-functions: cushions, transports 02 and nutrients
-transports metabolic waste products
-characteristics: clear, no RBC, contains glucose, sterile, contains a few WBCs
-cloudy=menigitis
-yellow=liver problems

91

Ventricles

-spaces within the brain
-four ventricles
-two lateral ventricles
-one in each cerebral hemispher drain to the third ventricle
-the third ventricle is medial and it drains into the 4th ventricle
-the 4th ventricle is medial and inferior to the third ventricle
-each ventricle contains a vascular network called the choroid plexus
-the choroid plexus along with epydemal cells form the CSF

92

Cerebrum

-largest part of the brain
-seat of intelligence: writing, reading,speaking,calculations,planning and executive functions
-site of memory and learning
-surface of the cerebrum is covered with grey matter called the cerebral cortex
-white matter is under the cortex
-grey matter on the outside
-surface folds called gyri(gyrus) which are seperated by grooves called sulci(sulcus)
-the cerebrum is divided into 2 hemisphere right and left by the longtitudinal fissure
-the two hemispheres are connected by aband of white matter called corpus collosum
-each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes
-the lobes are named after cranial bones directly over them

93

frontal lobe

-large in humans
-contains the primary motor area(conscious control of skeletal muscle)
-decussation(crossing over)=right hemisphere controls left side of the body(contralateral control)
-two motor speech centers
-brocca(oral speech)
-written speech area

94

partietal lobe

-superior lobe of each hemisphere
-seperated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus
-separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus
-contains the primary sensory area
-interpretation of sensory data

95

Temporal lobe

-lateral cortex
-inferior to the parital lobe
-auditory receiving and interpretation area
-wernicke area=speech comprehension area
-olfactory receivin and interpretation area(smell)

96

occipital lobe

-the most posterior and inferior lobe
-visual recieving and interpretation area
--"mom has eyes in backa head"

97

dienchephalon

-location btw cerebrum and brain stem
-contains pineal gland/limbic system
-functional and structural link btw the cerebral hemisphere and the brain stem
--pineal gland secrets hormone called melotonin
-melotonin-invovled in sleep cycle , circadian rhythmn
-limbic system responsible for emotions, and emtional control
-diencephalon divided into thalmaus/hypothalamus

98

thalamus

-surrounds the third ventricle
-sorts and directs sensory input to appropriate area of the cerebral cortex
-acts as a filter

99

hypothalamus

-forms the floor of the third vventricle
-maintains homeostasis by controlling: body temp,sleep,appetite,water balance,emotions
-controls the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
-influences HR,respiration,vasoconstriction/vasodilation(BP),respiration,digestion,thirst
-interface btw the cns and the endocrine system(piturary gland)

100

brain stem(midbrain,pons,medulla ob)

-connects the cerebrum and the diencephalon with the spinal cord

101

midbrain

-extends from the lower part of the diencephalon to the pons
-contains the reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing

102

pons

-bridge between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain
-helps regulate breathing rate and rhythmn

103

medulla oblongata

-connects pons and spinal cord
-links the brain and spinal cord functionally
-has centers that control vital functions:
-resp. center,cardiac center,vasomotor center
-medulla called vital center because of R,HR,BP

104

cerebellum(little brain)

-located under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum
-divided into two hemispheres
-primarly concerened voluntar muscles
-intergrates visual,auditory,and skeletal muscle location information to produce a smooth coordinated response
-maintain balance and muscle tone

105

cranial nerves(12 pairs)

-emerge from brain
-arrange from anterior to posterior
-some are all sensory
-some are all motor
-some are mixed/both

*some say marry money by my brother say bad business mary money

106

sensory vs. mixed nerves

-sensory- 2 types of sensory are gathered by cranial nerves
1-special senses-vision,hearing,olfaction,taste
2-general senses-touch,temp,pain,muscle sense, texture, pressure

motor command
-somatic motor-concenrend with voluntary muscles
-visceral motor-involuntrary muscles

*some say marry money but my brother says bad busnisess marry money

107

cranial nerves

1)Olfactory: sense of smell
2)optic: sense of sight
3)oculomotor:movement of the eyeball;constriction of pupil in bright light or for near vision
5)trigeminal-sensation in face, eyes, scalp,and teeth, contraction of muscles
7)facial(gustation nerve): sense of taste, contraction of facial muscles(expression), secretion of saliva and tears
8)acoustic(vestibulocochlear): sense of hearing, sense of equilibrium-inner ear
9)glossopharyngeal:sense of taste, controls swallowing muscles, gag reflex(risk for aspiration)
10)vagus(parasympathetic):sense in cardiac,respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes, motor impulses to larynx(speaking), decrease heart rate,peristalsis, and increase in digestive secretions

108

1)Olfactory:

sense of smell

109

2)optic:

sense of sight

110

3)oculomotor:

movement of the eyeball;constriction of pupil in bright light or for near vision

111

5)trigeminal:

-sensation in face, eyes, scalp,and teeth, contraction of muscles

112

7)facial(gustation nerve):

sense of taste, contraction of facial muscles(expression), secretion of saliva and tears

113

8)acoustic(vestibulocochlear):

sense of hearing, sense of equilibrium-inner ear

114

9)glossopharyngeal:

sense of taste, controls swallowing muscles, gag reflex(risk for aspiration)

115

10)vagus(parasympathetic):

sense in cardiac,respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes, motor impulses to larynx(speaking), decrease heart rate,peristalsis, and increase in digestive secretions