Prenatal Development(HD) Flashcards Preview

VEEB > Prenatal Development(HD) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prenatal Development(HD) Deck (56):
1

Mitosis

-cell division
-one step process-mutiply then divide
-somatic cells divide producing exact copies of themselves

2

Meiosis

-cell division
-2 step process-multiply,divide,divide
-meiosis creates gametes(sperm and eggs)
-meiosis ensures variability in off springs

3

Gametogenesis

-process in which cells divide by meiosis to form gametes
-oogenesis-results in one oocyte(ovum)
-spermatogenesis-occurs in testes results in sperm

4

Fertilization

-occurs in the outer third portion of the fallopian tube
-high estrogen levels increase peristalsis
-membrane cellular change
-zygote w/ 46 chromosomes

5

Sex Determination

-occurs at fertilization
-all oocytes have xchromosome
-sperm are carrying either an x or y chromosome
-sperm and oocyte have 23 chromosome-haploid number
-zygote has 46 chromosomes-diploid number

6

Fetal Development

Zygote(pre-embryonic)-first 2 weeks, fertilization,cell reproduction, implantation

Embyo(2-8weeks)-embryo is nourished and develops

Fetus(9th week-birth)-approx. 38-40weeks, growth and development

7

Tubal Transport of the Zygote

-Fertilzation in upper third of Fallopian Tube
-cells divide quickly 2-4-16(approx 3days) morula
-32(5-7days) blastsyst
-Blastocyct implants into the thickened endometrium
-Trophoblast develops within 35 days and becomes embryo

8

Implantation of the Zygote

-Blastocyct imbeds into endometrium 5-6 days after fertilization
-blastocyst secrets HCG-Human Chorionc Gonadotropin
-villi on outer layer lets HCG into endometrium
-HCG signals the corpus luteum
-takes 2 weesk to complete
-endometrium is not the decidua
-structures will form
-gestation 280 days or 10 lunar months or 38-42 weeks

9

cell differentiation(embryo)

occurs after implantation

10

chorion(embryo)

outermost layer

11

villi(embryo)

fingerlike projection

12

amnion(embryo)

innner layer-cells secrete fluid
-maintain temp
-symmetrical growth
-movement,shock absorber
-prevents skin from sticking to amnion

13

germ layers

give rise to specific tissues and organs

14

endoderm

respiratory system

15

mesoderm

circulatiory system(Heart Beat heard at 5th week)

16

Ectoderm

skin, yolk sac-forms RBCs for first 6weeks

17

Placenta

-temporary organ
-12 weeks to fully development
-nutrients to fetus
-waste to mom for excretion

18

Placental Transfer

-limited protection
-drugs can pass through
-A=do not cross placenta
-B=crosses w/o side effects
-C=crosses placenta membrane not sure of effect
-X=cannot be given

19

Placenta Metabolism

-capable of metabolism
-produces fatty acids,glycogen,cholesterol

20

Placenta Hormones

progesterone:
-maintains uterine lining
-reduce uterine contractions
-prepares alveolar glands

Estrogen:
-stimulates uterine growth
-increases blood flow to uterus
-stimulates lactiferous development

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin(HCG):
-signals corpus lutem to continue to secrete progesterone
-regulates sterioid production in fetus

Human Placental Lactogen(HPL)
-helps mom to increase glucose production in first trimester
-helps with breast development
-increases resistance to insulin
-HPL should decrease in second trimester, if it doesnt gestional diabetes will occur

21

Umbilical cord

-connecting link btw mother and fetus
-mom and fetus do not have blood
-12-36inches, 1-3ft long
-2 umbilical arteries(carries waste to mother)
-1 umbilical vein(carries oxygen and nutrients to fetus)
-surrounded by whartons jelly-white gelatinous connective tissue

22

(Fetal Heart Rate: Development of the Embryo/Fetus:)

-Fetal Heart Rate:
-5weeks=hb on sonogram
-12weeks=hb w/ doppler
-20weeks=hb w/ fetoscope

23

Movement of Embryo/Fetus

quickening at 20weeks

24

Recognition of gender

16 weeks=gender determination

25

age of viability

20 weeks(5months) =age of viability

26

vernix caseosa

thick cheesy substance that covers baby and protects the skin

27

goals for prenatal care

-protect and promote health and well being of the mother
-safeguard health and well being of the unborn infant
-avoid teratogens
-plan for a safe delivery

28

Prenatal visits

-conception to 28weeks=every 4 weeks
-29-36weeks=every 2 weeks
-37weeks-delivery=weekly

29

Ultrasonography

-can detect fetal movement
-identification of embryo or fetus
-gestational sac as early as 4-5 weeks

30

Amniocentesis

-early as 14weeks
-ultrasound
-10-20ml
-diagnosis=sex,fetal status,genetic problems

31

Presemptive signs of pregnancy

-Amennorrhea-absence of menstruation
-Breast changes
-urinary frequency
-changes in shape of abdomen
-Linea Nigra-skin discolor
-Chloasma-skin discolor
-quickening
-nausea and vomitting

32

Probable signs of pregnancy

-enlarged uterus
-hegars sign: softening of fundus
-goodwells sign: softening of cerxix
-Chadwicks sign: blusish discoloration of vagina,cervix,labia due to increase blood flow
-ballottement:palpatating rebound of fetus

33

Probable signs of pregnancy pregnancy test

-urine for HCG
-radioimmunoassay(RIA)
-potential hydatidiform mole or cancer

34

Positive signs of pregnancy

-Fetal Heart Sounds
-5 week=sonogram
-12week=doppler
-20 week=fetoscope
-uterine souffle
-funic souffle
-ultrasound

35

physical reproductive system changes

uterus:
-increase blood supple and size
-walls stretch and thin

Cervix:
-shorter and softer
-mucouse plug

Ovaries:
-continue to secrete estrogen/ovulation ceases

Fallopial tubes:
-no change

Vagina:
-increased blood supply
-thicker, increase secretions

Breasts:
-alveolar glands develo
-darker areola

36

sysyemic changes during pregnancy

resp:
-diaphragm up
-increase respirations

Cardio:
-hr up and left
-increase blood volume and co/ decrease hct

Gi:
-n/v/ ptyalism(increase salvation)
-softer gums
-hemorrhoids

Urinary:
-glycosuria
-proteinuria
-frequency

Integ:
-Linea Nigra
-Striae gravidarum(stretch marks)
-cholasma

skeletal:
-lordosis

37

Nageles Rule

-Estimated Date of Delivery(EDD)
-identify first day of menstrual period
-count back 3months
-add 7days
-only an estimate
-ultrasound evaluation

38

Obstetrical History= 2 digit method

Gravida: number of pregnancies
null=never before
primi=first pregnancy
multi=more than 1

Para: number of pregnancies that have gone past 24weeks(age of viability) whether infant was dead or alive

39

Obstetrical History= 5 digit method=GTPAL

G= number of pregnancies
T= number of completed term pregnancies
P=number of pre-term pregnancy
A=number of abortions
L=number of living children

40

First Prenatal Visit

-comprehensive history
-physical asses
-VS,Ht,Wt
-Fetal Heart Rate
-Fundal Height
-Pelvimetry
-Breast Exam

Psychosocial assesment
-support system
-emotional status
-economics
-cultrual preferences

Lab Test
-cbc,blood type
-Rh factor- if mom and dad negative no problem
-if mom - and baby + potential problems
-U/A, TB test
-test done later in pregnancy
-TORCH screen, triple screening, spina bifida, trisomy 21,mental retardation

41

weigh gain recommended

25-35lbs=for mom of normal weight
28-40lbs= for underweight mom
15-25lb= for overweight

Trimesters
-1st-maternal tissue
-2nd-maternal and fetal tissue
-3rd-fetal tissue

42

Nutrition

-2500 calories/day
-(more for teenage mom)
-increase fluids-8-10 glasses/day
-protein=60g/day
-calcium=1200mg/day
-iron=30mg/day
-vitamins(+prenatal vitamins)
-C=70mg
-A=800mg
-D=10mg
-Folic Acid=400mcg
-limit fats/sodium preservatives/caffeine
-consider dietary restrictions
-DM/HTN/Lactose intolerance/Celiac disorder
-culture

43

Foods to avoid

-solid white tuna
-shark, swordfish,tilefish
-deli meats
-raw fish
-soft scrambled eggs
-caffeine
-exercise=should be done in moderation
-can maintain non-pregnant activity

44

Patient education

-needs are assessed by health care team and individualized plan developed
-should include:
-travel restrictions
-activity level
-nutrition/exercise
-consider age of mom very young/advanced age

birth plan
-type of delivery
-setting
-partners role
-infant care classes

45

Reportable symptoms

-vaginal bleeding
-leaking of fluids
-unusual cramps
-unusual abdominal pain
-persistent N/V
-blurred vision
-persistant headache
-marked swelling of feet or hands
-pain or burning on urination
-fever/chills
-decreased fetal movement

46

Common discomforts(First trimester)

nausea
-dry toast or cracker
-drink fluids between meals not with meals
-no fried food
Vaginal discharge:
-no douche
-bathe daily
-cotton underwear
Fatigue
-naps,try for good night sleep
Nasal Stuffiness
-Fluid
Breast enlargement
-support bra

47

Common discomfort(second trimester)

backache:
-good shoes. proper lifting technique
-knee chest position
constipation:
-increase fluids and roughage
varicose veins:
-elevate legs
-support stockings
-avoid standing and sitting for long periods

48

Common discomfort(third trimester)

Hemorrhoids
-sitz bath; avoid constipation
Heart Burn:
-small meals,sit up after meals
Dyspnea
-sleep with pillows
Leg cramps
-diet, exercise
Edema of legs
-elevate legs, watch Na intake
Mood Swings
-emotional support

49

EDD,EDC

-estimated date of delivery
-estimated date of confinement

50

Quickening

-first movements of the fetus felt in the uterus(18-20wek)

51

Ballotment

palpation technique used in detecting or examining a floating object- rebound of the fetus or a fetal part when dislpaced by a light tap of the examining finger thru the vagina

52

Striae

shiny reddish lines as a result of stretching of the skin

53

RIA

radioimmunoassay

54

Chloasma Gravidarum

brownish pigmentation of the face occuring in pregnancy

55

Uterine Souffle

soft, blowing sound heard over the uterus during asesculation caused by blood entering diated uterine arteries

56

Lighteining

sensation of decreases abdominal distention produced by the descent of the fetus and uterus into the pelvic cavity