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Flashcards in Special Sense Organ Deck (50):
1

Senses

divided into special senses and general senses

2

Special Sense

senses that have localized sense organ

3

Vision

-organ: eye
-occibital lobe
-optic nerve(2)

4

Hearing

-organ: ear
-temporal lobe
-vestibular cochlear nerve(8)

5

Equilibrium

-organ:ear
-cerebellum
-vestibular cochlear nerve(8)

6

Taste

-organ:tongue
-gustation nerve

7

Smell

-organ:nose
-temporal lobe
-olfaction nerve(1)

8

General Senses

-receptors that are scattered/ distributed throughout the body

9

Cutaneous

-located at or near the surface of the body
-provide information about the external environment
-ex. touch,pressure,temp,pain

10

Internal Organ Receptors

-located in blood vessels and internal organ
-provide information about the internal environment

11

Proprioceptor

-located in musles tendon joints
-provide information about body position and movement

12

The EYE

-receptors for visual stimuli
-system for bending light rays(refractive apparatus)
-lacrimal apparatus
-accessory muscles
-nervel supply
-nerve supply

13

Coats of the eyeball

-eyeball sits in orbit
-wall is made of layers
-layers are called coats or tonic
-layers are different in front vs. the back
-overmost coat=fibrous tunic

14

Outer Coat

-Sclera(back): tough connect tissue, white due to collagen, avascular

-Cornea(front): transparent, avascular, bulges forword slightly
-cornea is part of the refractive apparatus

15

MIddle Coat(Vascuar Layer)

-Choroid-connective tissue and blood vessels, contains dark brown pigment
-dark brown pigment prevents scattering/reflecting off the light inside the eye

Ciliary Body(muscle)
-holds the lens in place, controls the shape of the lens (accommodation)
-the lens is the only part of the refractive apparatus that can change

16

Lens

-biconvex, adjustable part of the refraction system bi-convex=bulges out on both sides
-only adjustable part of the refraction system
-lens is clear
-thickness of the lens can be adjusted
-adjustment in thickness gives accomadation

17

Iris(muscle)

-colored
-made up of 2 sets of muscle fibers
-2 set of muscle fibers control size of pupil

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Pupil

pupil is an opening in the lens
-controls amount of light that eneters the eye
-in bright light pupil constricts
-in dark light the pupil dilates

19

Inner coat

retina: 2nd tunic, nervous tunic
-somplex structure that lines the back 2/3rd of the eye
-contains photoreceptors(visual receptos)
-rods detect the presense of light
-cones detect color
-optic disc

20

Rods

-detect light
-found in edges of the retina
-responsibe for night vision

21

Cones

-detect color
-found in center of the retina

22

Reaction of retina

-when light strikes the retina
-rods and cones generate impulses which are transmitted to the optic disc
-optic disk is the area where the optic nerve connects to the retina
-optic disk does not contain photoreceptors
-optic disk is blind spot

23

Posterior cavity(chamber of the eye)

-btw the lens and retina
-filled with vitreous body(viterous humor)
-vitreous body is gel-like material that fills the posterior cavitiy and keeps the retina in place

24

Anterior cavity(chambers of the eye)

-btw lens and cornea
-filled with aqueous(humor)(=watery fluid) body
-aqueous body is constantly being made and drained
-increase itnraocular pressure is not drained

25

Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye

Intrinsic muscles: inside the eye(iris(size of pupil and capillary body(thickness of lens))=control pupil and lens movement

Extrinsic muscles of the eye
-control movement of eyeball
-found outside the eye
-movement of each eye controlled by 6 muscles to produce convergence
-convergence: both eyes are directed to one visual field this is what gives us binocular vision

26

Sensory Nerve

1) Optic Nerve(Cranial Nerve 2)
-transmits visual impulses from the eye to the brain

2) Ophthalmic Nerve: Cranial Nerve 5

27

Motor Nerve of the EyE

1) Oculomotor Nerve(Cranial Nerve 3)
-supplies intrinsic muscles of the eyes
-most of the extrinsic muscles of the eye
-headlinging nerve

2) Trochlear Nerve(Cranial Nerve 4)
-supplies 1 nerve

3) Abducens Nerve(Cranial nerve 6)
-supplies 1 nerve

28

Conjunctiva

muscous membrane that covers the eye and lines the eyelid

29

Lacrimal Apparatus

-makes tears
-lacrimal gland: upper outer corner of the orbit
-nasolacrimal duct: connects eye with the nasal cavity

30

Pathway for sight

-light passes through
-Cornea-Aqueous Body-Pupil-Lens-Vitreuos Body-Photo receptors on the retina-optic nerve

31

Physiology of vision

Refraction: bending of light rays, lens is the only adjustable part of the refractive apparatus

-accomodation: ability to focus on near and far objects, reaction of the retina(when light hits retina)

-reaction of retina-PERRLA

32

Erros of Refraction

Myopia=nearsightedness

Hyperopia=farsightedness

Presbyopia=as you get old

Astigmatism=irregular curvature of the cornea

Strabismus=cross eyed

Amblyopia=lazy eye

33

External Ear

Pinna/Auricle=directs sound waves to the external auditory meatus

-External Auditory Meatus: through temporal bone, line w/ thin layer of skin, has cereminus glands maker cerumin, cereumin protects and lubricated the tympanic membrance

-Tympanic membrance: a thin membrane that vibrates when sound waves hit it

34

Middle ear

-cavity that has two parts
-Eustachian Tube:
-opens to back of throat,
- extends from the middle ear to pharynx in adults,
-narrow and slanted,
-equalizes pressure on both side of tympanic membrane

Ossicles:
-3 smalls bones
-transmit vibratio0n from tympanic membrane to the inner ear
-malleus=hammer=closest to tympanic membrane
-incus=anvil=middle ear
-stapes=strriup

35

Internal Ear

-Labrynth maze=extrememly complex structure
-endolymph-fluid found inside bony labrynth
-perilymph=fluid btw bony labrynth and membranous labrynth
-fluid transmits sound vibrations to hair cells in the cochlea
-hair cells are part of orgam of corti, this is what we hear with
-different hair cells hear different vibration/frequency
-hairs are nerve fibers
-that sensory information is transmitted by vestibular cochlea cranial nerve then goes to the tempral lobe

36

Cochlea

-part of the inner ear responsible for hearing
-ossicles will transmit vibration
-describe as labrynth
-2 labrynth one inside the other
-bony labrynth=made in bone
-inner labrynth=membranous

37

Semicircular Canal

-responsible for sense of equiibrium
-(2) receptors
-dynamic equilibrium-when moving
-static equilibrium-when still

38

Conduction Deafness

-hearing loss resulting from interfering of the passage from ossicle in inner ear
-something happening to the ossicles and tympanic membrane

39

Senorineural Deafness

-result from prolonged exposure to lound sounds hair cells die

40

Otosclerosis

-bone disorder
-hereditary
-prevents the vibration of the stapes

41

Presbycusis

slows progressive hearing loss that accompanies aging
-usually lower tones and frequency are heard better

42

Taste receptors

-sweet: tip of tongue
-salt: anterior sides
-sour: posterior sides of tongue
-bitter: posterior surface of tongue

43

Smell receptors

olfactory receptors:
-located in epitheal of superior part of nasal cavity(roof of nasal cavity)
-smell transmitted to brain by cranial nerve 1 then going to the temporal lobe

44

Touch

-meisner receptor

45

Pressure

-Pechinner receptor

46

Temp

-crouse receptors

47

Position

proprioceptors, how you are arranged in space

48

Pain

free nerve endings

49

Visceral Senses

1. Hunger/Thirst- Triggered by internal changes , hunger receptor detect changes in blood nutrient level, thrist receptors detect changes in electrical communication

50

Visceral Senses

1. Hunger/Thirst- Triggered by internal changes , hunger receptor detect changes in blood nutrient level, thrist receptors detect changes in electrical communication