Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (83)
What are the three principle functions of the respiratory system?
1. air conduction
2. air filtration
3. gas exchange
air conduction and air filtration can be combined as "air conditioning"
Which portion of the airway transports, conditions, and filters air?
Which portion of the airway is associated with alveoli?
Name the structures within the extrapulmonary portion of the conducting airway.
1. nasal vestibule and cavity
2. nasopharynx and oropharynx
5. primary bronchi
Name the structures within the intrapulmonary portion of the conducting airway.
1. Secondary bronchi
2. Tertiary bronchi
3. Primary bronchiole
4. Terminal bronchiole
What supplies a secondary pulmonary lobule?
Each primary bronchiole and its terminal bronchiolar branches
Why do the interlobular septa stain black?
anthracotic pigment has been consumed by macrophages and is flowing through the lymph vessels within the interlobular septa
- outlines the secondary pulmonary lobules
What supplies a primary acinus?
terminal bronchioles and branches
What supplies a pulmonary lobule/respiratory lobule?
*this is where gas exchange takes place
Where would one tumor nodules that have been lymphangitically spread?
1) Nodules within the interlobular speta of the secondary pulmonary lobule
2) nodules in the lymphatics near the pulmonary artery
What are the components of the respiratory airways (decreasing order)?
Where is olfactory epithelium located?
lines the superior margin of the nasal septum and superior nasal concha
What cell type is olfactory epithelium?
What are the cellular residents of the olfactory epithelium?
1) olfactory receptor cells
2) sustentacular cells
3) brush cells
4) basal cells
What type of neurons are olfactory receptor cells?
bipolar neurons with a dendrite projecting towards the epithelial surface and axons toward the lamina propria
Describe the olfactory vesicle.
Dilated ending of the olfactory receptor cell dendrite with 6-8 non-motile cilia that fold flat over the surface of the epithelium and are used to detect olfaction
Where is the axon of the olfactory receptor cell located?
the axon enters the lamina propria by penetrating the basal lamina
Is the axon of the olfactory receptor cell myelinated?
Describe sustentacular cells.
Columnar cells with apical microvilli forming a striated border
What is the purpose of the sustentacular cells?
- Provide support and nourishment for olfactory cells and insulate the olfactory cells from one another
What gives a yellow-brown color to the mucosa?
Sustentacular cells that contain lipofuscin granules
Do brush cells have microvilli?
Yes - on the apical domain
What transduces sensory stimulation of the mucosa?
brush cells in synaptic contact with branches of CN V
Which cell is this: short, pyramidal-shaped cells that are anchored to the basal lamina but do not reach the apical surface of the epithelium?
What is the purpose of the basal cell?
"stem cell of the olfactory epithelium"
- regenerative cells that can mature into brush, sustentacular, and olfactory receptor cells
What are the contents of the olfactory lamina propria?
1. Bowman's glands
2. Unmyelinated nerve fibers and bundles
3. Swell bodies
What do Bowman's glands secrete?
Serous product containing odorant-binding protein
Describe the function of swell bodies.
Erectile venous bodies on one side of the nasal cavity will swell and cause obstruction of airflow which then allows the cells on the obstructed side to re-hydrate.
- "Swell side" will switch
- unconscious process
Where is non-keratinized, stratified squamos epithelium found within the larynx?
On surfaces subject to abrasive and vibratory forces:
1. vocal folds
2. anterior surface of the epiglottis
3. exterior laryngeal surfaces