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Define ovulation.

release of a secondary oocyte from a mature follicle


When do FSH and LH spike?

Day 14 of the menstrual cycle

* this is necessary for ovulation to occur


Where is the mature follicle located within 12 hours before ovulation?

a mature follicle is close to and protrudes like a blister from the ovarian surface before ovulation


What causes meiosis I to resume?

-surge in LH

The primary oocyte will then complete meiosis I and become a secondary oocyte which begins meiosis II immediately, but pauses at metaphase II.


Ooctye surrounded by zona pellucida and granulosa cells (corona radiata) float in ___________.

liquor folliculi


What are follicular stigma?

clear pale spots formed on the ovary, over the follicle, as blood flow to this are ceases


What breaks down the cortical stromal tissue covering the follicle?



What must rupture to release the oocyte and liquor folliculi?

granulosa wall


Describe the oocyte released at ovulation.

A secondary oocyte in metaphase II covered by zona pellucida and granulosa cells


For how long is the oocyte viable?

24 hours


What is the corpus luteum composed of?

granulosa and thecal cells of the collapsed mature follicle left behind following ovulation remain embedded within the ovarian cortex and are transformed into a temporary endocrine gland (corpus luteum)


What hormones maintain the corpus luteum during the second half of the menstrual cycle?

the CL is maintained by pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH


If the ovulated oocyte is not fertilized, the granulosa and thecal cells left in the ovarian cortex are referred to as __________.

CL of menstruation


What is the function of the CL of menstruation?

- continues to produce estrogen and PG for 14 days to maintain the endometrial lining


What is the CL of menstruation called when it degenerates?

corpus albicans (scar tissue)


What causes the endometrium to shed and menstrual bleeding to occur?

a drop in estrogen and PG levels after the CL of menstruation degenerates


If the ovulated oocyte is fertilized and implantation/pregnancy occurs, the granulosa and thecal cells remaining in the ovarian cortex become the _____________.

CL of pregnancy


What maintains the CL of pregnancy?

- hCG released by the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorion
- the CL of pregnancy will continue to produce estrogen and PG to maintain the endometrium and pregnancy


When does implantation of the blastocyst occur?

day 20-21 of the menstrual cycle


When does the syncytiotrophoblast develop?

around day 7 of fertilization


By what day is hCG being released if a pregnancy occurs?

by day 28 of the menstrual cycle


What is the basis of most pregnancy tests?

Presence of hCG in the urine


What cells produce estrogens and PG?

Granulosa lutein cells (granulosa cells) and theca lutein cells (theca interna cells)


What effect do estrogens and PG more specifically have on the endometrium?

estrogens and PG stimulate the maturation and glandular activity of the endometrium- preparing the uterine lining for possible implantation of the blastocyst


What is the dense connective tissue scar formed after the the corpus luteum regresses following menstruation or pregnancy?

corpus albicans


How do granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells appear histologically?

"bubbly" or "frothy" because of the lipid droplets removed in preparation


True or False: polycystic ovarian disease usually only affects one ovary.


it is usually bilateral


Describe the tunica albuginea of a patient with polycystic ovarian disease.

The abnormally thickened tunica albuginea results in many fluid-filled follicular cysts and atrophic secondary follicles that remain embedded in the ovary


True or False: the ovaries of a patient with polycystic ovarian disease have a rough, bumpy surface.


the ovaries have a smooth surface because the patient is not ovulating (scar tissue from ovulation causes the normal dimples)


How is the hormone ratio of a person with polycystic ovarian disease affected?

no ovulation--> granulosa cells do not become CL --> no PG

- the uterine endometrium is only stimulated by estrogen
- treated with hormone therapy to establish a normal estrogen to PG ratio