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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (80)
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31

What does the lamina propria of the olfactory region contain?

serous olfactory glands and non-myelinated axons of olfactory neurons from nerve bundles Cr N 1

32

What are swell bodies and where are they located?

they are regions rich in venous plesxuses (distended with blood) and are found in the olfactory and respiratory regions

33

What are the cells found in the nasal cavity?

- ciliated columnar epithelial cells
- goblet cells - secrete mucous
- basal cells - stem cells for other types
- neuroendocrine cells
- brush cell - microvilli
- olfactory epithelium

34

What is the vomero-nasal organ used for?

chemoreception and sexual behavior

35

What lines the larynx?

initial part is lined by stratified squamous epithelium
- after vocal chords the lining changes to pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

36

What structures make up the larynx?

cartilage, vocal folds, skeletal muscle

37

What is the trachea lined by?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with serous glands in the lamina propria/submucosa

38

True or False? The trachea has a clearly defined lamina propria and submucosa.

False. They are not clearly demarcated in the trachea

39

What supports the trachea wall?

rings of cartilage (incomplete dorsally - excet in birds who have complete rings)

40

What completes the wall of the trachea?

connective tissue adventitia completes the wall of the trachea

41

What type of cartilage is found in the bronchus?

hyaline cartilage

42

What are bronchi lined by?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

43

What surrounds the lamina propria of the bronchus?

smooth muscle followed externally by connective tissue containing mixed bronchial glands and plates of hyaline cartilage

44

What do mixed seromucous glands secrete?

mucin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme (bacteriostatic/cidal)

45

What are the bronchioles always close to?

arterioles

46

What do bronchioles lack?

cartilage and glands

47

What are bronchioles subdivided into?

terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles

48

What are terminal bronchioles lined by?

ciliated cuboidal cells with few to no goblet cells

49

True or False? a muscularis mucosae is still present in terminal bronchioles.

True

50

What are clara cells and where are they found?

Cells located in terminal and respiratory bronchioles that bulge at the surface
- found in mucous membrane (inner epithelial layer)

51

What are the functions of clara cells?

- are a source of surfactant-like substance which aids in maintaining patency of airway
- metabolize airborne toxins, may have immune function

52

What is the function of the respiratory bronchiole?

conduction and gas exchange

53

What are respiratory bronchioles lined with?

ciliated cuboidal epithelium which becomes flattened distally

54

True or false? Respiratory bronchioles have a complete muscularis mucosae.

False, it is incomplete

55

What do alveolar ducts do? What are they?

are part of the exchange system and they empty into alveolar sacs and alveoli

56

What are the walls of alveolar ducts composed of?

entirely composed of alveoli lined by simple squamous epithelial cells

57

What is contained within the edges surrounding the openings of each alveoli of an alveolar duct?

smooth muscle cells - gives the lip of the alveolus a knob-like appearance

58

Alveolar ducts branch into alveolar sacs which lack __________

smooth muscle

59

What are alveoli lined by?

two distinct epithelial cells:
- pneumocytes type I
- Pneumocytes type II

60

What happens during a pulmonary edema?

alveolar spaces filled with proteinacious fluid