Review of posters 23/04/2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review of posters 23/04/2016 Deck (23):
1

Causes of myocarditis

Cocksackie viridans
Rheumatic fever- streptococcus infection where the immune system makes antibodies that attack the myocardium)
Idiopathic
Lyme disease
Cardiotoxic drugs e.g. cocaine, alcohol

2

Lab tests for myocarditis

CRP
CPK- elevated in damage to brain, heart or muscle
Troponin- specific to heart
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased
White cell count increased

3

Treatment of myocarditis

ACE inhibitor
Beta blocker
Diuretic (for any fluid retention)
Antibiotics- not in viral cases

4

Causes of pericarditis

Viral- herpes simplex, HIV
Bacterial- TB
Trauma
Cancer
Post MI- Dresslers syndrome- 2-3 weeks after an MI, the immune system starts attacking the hearts pericardium.

5

Signs of pericarditis

Elevated JVP
Possible murmurs
Distant heart sounds

6

Dilated cardiomyopathy symptoms

Heart failure esc symptoms- oedema, SOB, fatigue, chest pain, syncope (possibly in extreme cases)

7

Hypertrophic cardiomopathy symptoms

Intermittent- patient may be asymptomatic or have symptoms. When symptoms show they include:
SOB
Fainting
Can cause sudden death

8

Signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Systolic ejection murmur- valsalva manouvre will accentuate it because it briefly decreases flow back to the heart and therefore the heart chambers constrict and the obstruction worsens, therefore accentuating the murmur.

9

Restrictive cardiomyopathy symptoms

Decreased filling may cause syncope
odema
SOB
weakness and fatigue

10

Treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Septal reduction
Beta blockers or calcium channel blockers

11

Treatment of restrictive cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

Diuretics, ACE inhibitors/ARB and lifestyle changes to decrease fluid.
Possible pacemaker insertion
Beta blockers/ calcium channel blockers in dilated cardiomyopathy.
Digoxin

12

Symptoms in severe cases of acute pancreatitis

Tachycardia
Hypotension
Grey Turners sign
Cullens sign

13

Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

SERUM AMYLASE #1
Urinary amylase

14

Pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis

Excess alcohol. Causes premature activation of trypsinogen to trypsin. This leads to protein depositation in the pancreatic duct forming plugs. These may obstruct the duct- lead to pancreatic hypertension and increased intracellular conc of calcium.

15

Tests for chronic pancreatitis

Serum amylase- may be ok in chronic
Faecal elastase! raised.

16

Treatment for chronic pancreatitis

NSAIDs and opiates to manage abdominal pain

17

Causes of chronic pancreatitis

Alcohol or autoimmune chronic pancreatitis. Defect in the IgG4, causing increase in serum. Causes dense lymphoplasthytic infiltrates. Responds to steroids.

18

Cholelithasis

Gallstones
Two types- cholesterol or pigment stones

19

How are cholesterol stones formed?

Difference in ratio of cholesterol to bile salts.

20

How are pigment gall stones formed?

Too much bile can't all be formed into bile salts.

21

Risk factors for developing gall stones

Obesity
Too much cholesterol
Diabetes
Female
Genetic

22

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the bile duct due to impaction of gall stones.
Acute- gall stone obstructing ampulla of Vater.
Chronic- Gall bladder wall becomes thickened (associated with gall stones)

23

Symptoms of cholecystitis

Acute
Epigastric pain
Jaundice
May develop peritonitis if it becomes infected