Review posters 19/05/2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review posters 19/05/2016 Deck (52):
1

Three closing of the mouth muscles

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial pterygoid

2

Name the attachments of the jaw closing muscles

Temporalis- temporal fossa to the coronoid process of the mandible
Medial pterygoid- angle of mandible to the pterygoid plates on the sphenoid bone
Masseter- angle of mandible to the zygomatic arch

3

Jaw opening muscle and its attachment

Lateral pterygoid- condyle process of mandible to pterygoid plates on sphenoid bone.

4

Describe the nervous innervation of the mouth, nasal cavities, oro and laryngopharnx, glands etc.

CN V1 supplies the anterior part of the nasal cavity
CN V2 supplies the posterior part of the nasal cavity
CN V2 also supplies the superior half of the mouth
CN IX supplies the nasopharynx and oropharnx along with the parotid gland.
CN X supplies the layngopharynx and trachae
CN VII supplies both the sublingual and submandibular gland.
The tongue- anterior 2/3rds supplied by CN V3. Posterior 2/3rds supplied by CNX

5

Name the four external muscles of the tongue

Hyoglossus- posteriorly under the tongue
Genoglossus- big ass muscle under the tongue
Palatoglossus- attaches to the roof of the mouth then onto the tongue
Styloglossus- attaches towards the back of the roof of the mouth onto the tongue.

6

What are the external muscles of the tongue responsible for?

Position of the tongue

7

What are internal muscles of the tongue responsible for?

Shape of the tongue

8

Which nerves supplies the extrinsic muscles of the tongue

CN XII

9

Muscles of the pharynx

Internal longtidinal muscles- allow the movement of the larynx upwards closing the laryngeal inlet
External constrictor muscles- overlap each other and contract sequentially. Divided into superior, middle and inferior.

10

Constrictor muscles are supplied by?

Cranial nerve X

11

Longitudinal muscles supplied by?

Cranial nerve IX and X

12

Which muscle closes the lips and which nerve is it supplied by?

Orbicular oris and supplied by CN VII

13

Describe the process of swallowing

Lips close (orbicular oris muscle)
Tongue pushes bolus of food backwards towards oropharynx
Sequential contraction of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles to push food bolus inferiorly
At the same time the inner longitudinal muscles shorten, closing the laryngeal inlet.

14

Location of upper oesophageal sphincter

c6
Called the cricopharyngeus

15

Roth spots

Retinal haemorrhage- due to bacterial endocarditis

16

Quincke's sign

Alternate flushing and blanching of the nail bed due to pulsation of sub-pappillary arteriolar and cappilary nail beds.
Sign of aortic valve insufficiency

17

Oslers nodes

Painful nodules on the pulp of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes.
Caused by bacterial endocarditis

18

Kartagener syndrome

Rare genetic ciliopathy of the cilia lining the respiratory tract
Abnormal ciliary action can cause chronic sinusitis and bronchitis

19

Raised J waves

Hyperthermia

20

Aortic co-arctation

Best heard left of the scapula

21

Wilsons disease

Copper deposits- familial condition. May be associated with dementia

22

Features common in all eukaryotic cells

An outer membrane
An inner cytosol
A cytoskeleton
Membrane bound organelles
Inclusions

23

The plasmalemma

Seperates the cytoplasm from the outside environment. Bimolecular layer of amphipathic molecules.

24

Membrane proteins in the plasmalemma

Can diffuse laterally however are anchored down. Therefore protein distribution may be uneven.

25

Inclusions

Dispensible and may be present only transiently. Represent components that have been synthesised by the cell itself.

26

What makes up the cytoskeleton?

Microfilaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

27

Microfilaments

Made of actin fibres. Can assemble and desemble quiclly. Very dynamic

28

Intermediate filaments

Composed of 6 main proteins. Bind intracellular elements together in the plasmalemma

29

Microtubules

Composed of two tubulin subunits, alpha and beta. Originate from a centrosome and grow towards the periphery. Act as the motorway network of the cell. Two proteins, dynein and kinesin associate with organelles or molecules and drag them. Kinesin moves towards the periphery whereas dynein moves towards the centre.

30

The nucleus

Contains chromosomes and is the location of RNA synthesis

Enclosed by two membranes with nuclear pores. Between the two membranes is a perinuclear cistern.
The outer nuclear membrane is studded with ribosomes.

31

Euchromarin

DNA undergoing transcription

32

Heterochromatin

DNA that is condensed and not undergoing transcription

33

Ribosomes

Formed in the nucleolus and are instrumental in protein synthesis. HAs both large and small subunits.

34

Endoplasmic reticulum

Associated with protein synthesis and the initiation of glycoprotein formation.

35

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesis of lipids
Processes proteins

36

Golgi apparatus

Packaging and modification of proteins

37

Mitochondria

Produce ATP
Cristae are the internal folds

38

Endocytosis

Membrane invaginates- fuses making a vesicle.

39

Two types of stroke

Ischaemic or haemorrhagic

40

What is a stroke?

Acute onset of focal neurological symptoms and signs. Due to disruption of blood supply.

41

Ischaemic stroke

Thrombotic, embolism, hypoperfusion

42

Virchows triad

Blood stasis
Endothelial injury
Hypercoaguble state

43

Haemorrhagic stroke

Burst blood vessel. Could be due to weakened blood vessel walls in aneurysms or in arteriovenous malformations.
OR inflammation of the vessel wall due to vasculitis.

44

Risk factors for stroke (non modifiable)

Age
Family history
Gender
Race
Previous stroke

45

Risk factors for stroke (modifiable)

Hypertension
Hyperlipidaemia
Diabetes
Atrial fibrillation
Congestive heart failure
Alcohol excess
Obesity
Physical inactivity
Poor socioeconomic status
Smoking.

46

Stroke mimics

Hypoglycaemia
Siezure
Migraine
Space occupying lesions such as tumours.

47

History and examination

Any signs of AF
Neurological examination to find out which type of stroke.

48

Investigations into stroke

Brain imaging- only way to tell which type of stroke
MRI with DWI
MRI with GRE
CT brain +/- angiography
In ischaemic stroke- investigations directed to find the cause of thrombosis or embolism.

49

Cardioembolism

Infarcts in more than one arterial territory

50

Atheroembolism

Infarcts in the same side as the effected carotid artery

51

TIA

Focal neurological lesions that resolve within 24 hours.

52

Management of stroke

Aspiring 75mg
Dipyridamole 200mg BD
Statins
In AF- anticoagulation
Control hypertension

Surgical management
Haematoma evacuation
Releif of raised intracranial pressurre.