Review posters 05/05/2016 Flashcards Preview

Posters > Review posters 05/05/2016 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Review posters 05/05/2016 Deck (60):
1

Marfans genetics

Autosomal dominant inherited disorder
Defect on the MFS1 gene for fibrillin.
Diagnosis based on family linkage and mutations found.

2

Marfans appearence

Tall, thin (usually man) with long arms, legs and fingers.
High arched palette, retinal detachment/lens dislocation.

3

Cardiac implications of Marfans

Often have abdominal aortic aneurysms. Lots of patients also have arrhythmias. Also mitral valve regurgitation along with mitral valve stenosis.

4

Management of Marfans.

Beta blocker- stops further dilatation of the aorta
ACE inhibitor. In marfans TNF beta is upregulated. ACE inhibitors stop this.
Lifestyle advice- avoid prolonged strenuous exercise such as cross country running.

5

Monitoring

Dilatation monitored until greater than 5.5cm in diameter- then it is surgically removed.

6

The common cold (acute coryza)

Common-
Most commonly caused by rhinovirus.

7

Symptoms of coryza

Watery nasal discharge
Or blocked nose
Sneezing
Sore throat
Tiredness
Slight fever
Malaise

8

How is the common cold spread?

Direct contact

9

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx

10

Symptoms of pharyngitis

Sore throat
Oropharynx and soft palette are redenned.
Tonsils are inflamed and swollen.

11

Treatment of pharyngitis

Self limiting

12

What most commonly causes pharyngitis?

Adenovirus

13

Epiglottis

Inflammation of the epiglottis- blocks trachea

14

Symptoms of epiglottitis

Increasing difficulty breathing- acute air flow obstruction
Hypoxia
Epiglottis is large and inflamed
Extreme illness

15

What do you do with a case of epiglottitis?

Leave the mouth alone- no examination, no looking- any of these may make it more inflamed worsening the obstruction.
CALL AN AMBULANCE- medical emergency.

16

Influenza

Could be influenza A or B

17

Which influenza strain is responsible for possible worldwide pandemics?

Influenza A

18

Symptoms of influenza infection

Fever
Shivering
Generalised aches

Followed by a severe headache, dry cough and sore throat. Possibly accompanied with diarrhoea.

19

What is the incubation period for influenza?

1-3 days

20

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the sinus's

21

Symptoms of sinusitis

Blocked nose (due to the channels from the sinuses being blocked by inflammation
Watery discharge
Painful headache that may spread to the cheeks, eyes and forehead.

22

Treatment of sinusitis

Usually self limiting- however may need assistance with antibiotics.

23

Diptheria

Contagious bacterial infection.

24

How is diptheria spread?

By direct contact, contact with an infected surroundings or touching something that the infected individual has touched.

25

Symptoms of diptheria

Grey/black coating at the back of the mouth
Fever
Sore throat
Breathing difficulties

26

Treatment

Antibiotics and antitoxins.

27

Rhinitis

Two types, seasonal or persistent (perrenial)

28

Seasonal rhinitis

Hayfever-
Itchy eyes
Itchy soft palate
Sneezing
Watery nasal discharge

29

Allergic rhinitis

Most commonly to dust mites that live in the house. Could also be to household pets saliva.

30

Name the three types of persistent rhinitis.

Allergic, non-allergic eosinophilia, vasomotor rhinitis

31

Non-allergic eosinophilia

No extrinsic cause.
eosinophillic granulocytes present in nasal discharge

32

Vasomotor rhinitis

Occurs when come into contact with cold air, smoke etc. Due to a nervous response.

33

Treatment of rhinitis

Antihistamines
Sodium cromoglycate (anti-inflammatory)
Corticosteroids
Avoidance of irritant

34

Laryngitis symptoms

Hoarse throat
Barking cough
Audible stridor
Progressive airway obstruction

35

Obstruction

Most likely to be in right main bronchus.

36

Treatment of influenza A/B

Paracetamol and bed rest

37

The term pneumocoinosis refers to which occupational lung disorders?

Coal workers lung
Silicosis
Beryliosis
Asbestosis

38

The term hypersensitivity pneumonitis encompasses which occupational lung disorders?

Farmers lung
Bird fanciers lung
Cheese workers lung

39

Coal workers lung

Two types- simple pneumocoinosis or progressive massive fibrosis

40

Simple pneumocoinosis

Dust particles from coal get into the lung. The more exposure to these duct particles, the more likely you are to develop pneumocoinosis.

41

Catagories of simple pneumocoinosis

1) small round nodular opacities relatively few in number
2) Small round nodular opacities in numerous quantities however lung markings still visible
3) Small round nodular opacities numerous in quantity- lung markings not visible,

42

Progressive massive fibrosis

Develops from simple pneumocoinosis.
Round masses are developed several centimetres in diameter.
Sometimes have necrotic centres

43

What would a lung function test of someone with progressive massive fibrosis show?

Restrictive and obstructive properties.

44

Symptoms of progressive massive fibrosis

Considerable SOB
Cough
Sputum may be black.

45

Silicosis

Silica fibres inside the lung
Particularly toxic to alveolar macrophages
Increased risk of TB

46

Signs of silicosis

Eggshell calcification around the hilar regions

47

Asbestosis

Inhalation of asbestos fibres
These deposit in the tissues in the lung.
White blood cells then take up the particles- causing inflammation.

48

Types of asbestos

Crysotile- white (least fibrinogenic) (90%)
Croicodolite- blue (most fibrinogenic) (6%)
amosite (4%)

49

Relationship between asbestos and smoking

Synergistic

50

Mesothelioma

Cancer of the mesothelial cells (cells of the pleura that secrete the intrapleural fluid)
Related to asbestos exposure

51

Symptoms of mesothelioma

Chest wall pain
Pleural effusion

52

Byssinosis

Exposure to cotton wool dust
"Monday sickness"- worse when you've had a break from it and gets better throughout the week.

53

Berylliosis

Egg shell calcification
Inhalation of beryllium (copper alloy)
Clinical picture similar to sarcoidosis

54

Risk factors for PE

Contraceptive pill
Pregnancy
Obesity
Trauma
Malignancy
Pelvic obstruction
Immobility
Recent surgery
Thrombophilia (increased tendency of blood to clot)

55

What is a PE

DVT from legs have enlodged in the pulmonary circulation- causing blockage.

56

Symptoms of PE

Pleuritic chest pain
Shortness of breath (acute in onset)
Heamoptysis
Leg pain/swelling
Collapse

57

Signs of PE

Hypoxia
Low BP
Tachycardia
Cyanosed

58

Investigations and their findings of PE

V/Q mismatch- shows where obstruction is
CT pulmonary angiogram- could do the same
Chest X-ray- normal
D-dimers raised
Leg- ultrasound may show atherosclerotic plaque

59

Treatment of PE

Warfarin
Low molecular weight heparin
Aspirin/clopidogrel

60

Prevention of further PE's occuring

Early mobilisation after operations
TED compression stockings
Novel anticoagulant e.g. dabigatran