Review posters 10/05/2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review posters 10/05/2016 Deck (39):
1

What does Peak Expiratory Flow measure?

How hard and fast the patient can exhale. In diseases with increased airway resistance e.g. asthma, the peak flow will be reduced.

2

What does spirometry measure?

The forced vital capacity (how much you can breathe out), the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the FEV1/FVC can be calculated from this.

3

What is the equation to work out the percentage in PEFR?

Obtained value/Expected value x100

4

Give examples of and describe an obstructive disease

Obstructive diseases are due to narrowing of the bronchi/bronchioles. This could be due to inflammation. Examples include asthma, copd, emphysema, bronchiectasis

5

Describe and give examples of a restrictive disease

Restrictive disease is characterised by restricted lung expansion. Examples include pulmonary fibrosis.

6

What would the spirometry show for an obstructive disease.

Decreased FEV1, normal/decreased FVC.
FEV1/FVC will not be normal even if the FVC has decreased because it will not do so proportionally

7

What would the spirometry for a restrictive disease look like.

Both the FEV1 and FVC would be reduced. However the FEV1/FVC ratio will be normal.

8

Di-George syndrome

Repeated infections
Muiltiple viral and bacterial infections
Recurrent candidiasis
Facial features suggestive
Decreased T cell count
Hypocalcaemia
Cardiovascular system is abnormal

9

Pancoast tumour

Can invade the brachial plexus and cause muscle wasting in the hand and interrupts sympathetic innervation to the head

10

Graft-versus host disease

Recurrent skin rashes and infections
Skin abnormal across whole body
Underlying diagnosis form of SCID

11

Eaton Lambert syndrome

Paraneoplastic change
Hyporeflexia
Proximal limb weakness
Reduced autonomic activity

12

Geographic tongue

Characterised by red streaks on the tongue. No known cause. Harmless

13

Black hairy tongue

Caused by proliferation of chromogenic microorganisms causing brown staining of elongated fusiform papillae.
Cause is unknown by heavy smoking and antiseptic mouth washes are said to be associated.

14

Gingivae swelling

Swelling of the gums due to inflammation of fibrosis hyperplasia.
Associated with drugs, pregnancy, wegners granulomatos.

15

Chronic gingivitis

Accumalation of bacterial plaque. Resolves when plaque is removed. Common cause of bleeding gums.

16

Acute ulcerative gingivitis

Associated with poor oral hygiene. Proliferation of spirocheate and fusiform bacteria.

17

Treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis

Oral metronidazole 200mg 3 times daily

18

Glassins

Red, smooth sore tongue.
Associated with B12, folate and iron deficiency
Also seen in Candida infections

19

What is the Henderson Hasselbach equation used for?

Calculating the pH of buffers.

20

What is the Henderson Hasselbach equation?

pH= pKa + log ([A-]/[HA]

21

How do you work out pH?

-log [H+]

22

How do you work out pKa

-log [Ka]

23

What is Ka

HA-----> H+ + A-

Ka (acid dissociated constant)= [H+][A-]/[HA]

24

What is an amphipathic molecule?

Both hydrophillic and hydrophobic

25

What sort of substances dissolve in water?

Polar substances

26

What do amphipathic molecules form in water?

Micelles where the hydrophobic end is in the middle surrounded by the hydrophillic ends.

27

Which amino acid is the expection to the configuration?

Cystiene

28

What is a stereoisomer?

Non-superimposable mirror images.

29

What are proteins made up of?

20 different L amino acids.

30

Recurrent apthous ulcers

Could be major or minor

31

Minor recurrent apthous ulcers

Less than 10mm in diameter. Usually clear up within 14 days. Have a grey/white centre with a thin erythematous halo.

32

Major recurrent apthous ulcers

Greater than 10mm in diameter. Often persist for weeks to months and heal by scarring

33

What diseases can cause ulcers?

IBD and coeliacs can cause ulceration. Also HIV and lupus.

34

Cause of recurrent apthous ulcers?

Unknown- deficiencies of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 are sometimes present but not usually linked.

35

Treatment of recurrent apthous ulcers?

No treatment- avoid acidic foods and drinks
Possible topical corticosteroid or tetracycline mouth wash.

36

Neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma)

Malignant tumour of the mouth. Can be caused by tobacco or heavy alcohol consumption.

37

Treatment of neoplasia

Surgical resection. Often requires dissection of the neck to access the lymph nodes involved.

38

Oral pigmentation lesions

Black areas on the gingivae. Can result from dental amalgum sequestering into tissues.

39

Oral white patches

Transient white patches either due to Candida infection or are very occasionally seen in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Oral candidiasis is seen in the use of inhaled corticosteroids or antibiotics.