Flashcards in Review of posters 24/04/2016 Deck (39):
Investigations into lung cancer.
CT scan of the thorax
The bronchial walls are abnormally and permanently dilated. It occurs when they become inflamed-thickened and irreversibly damaged. The mucocillary escalator becomes impaired and recurrent infections ensue.
Symptoms of bronchiectasis
Halitosis (bad breath)
Production of clear, thick sputum in mild-moderate cases. Thick khaki coloured sputum in serious cases.
Treatment of bronchiectasis
Postural drainage (3 x daily) 10-20 mins/time
Antibiotics in mild cases
Intermittent chemotherapy with cefactor 500mg daily
Cloxacillin 500mg- 6hourly in staph aureus cases.
Investigations into bronchiectasis
CT and CXR. Both will show blood vessels thicker than airways.
Genetics of CF
Defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Means chlorine, and subsequently sodium and water, won't move into the sweat and mucus.
Autosomal recessive inherited gene.
Symptoms of CF
weight loss (failure to thrive)
Pancreatic deficiency (steatorrhoea)
Absent vas deferens and epidymus
Treatment of CF
Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal infections
Antibiotics for exacerbations
SABA and inhaled corticosteroid to reduce symptoms
Highly calorific diet
Inhalation of recombinant DNA
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Closure of the airways at night due to unfavourable pressure and low muscle tone (hypotonic muscle) causing increasing hypoxia until the person is woken up.
Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea
Daytime sleepiness and fatigue
Pre-disposing factor of obstructive sleep apnoea
Strong analgesics or sedatives
Investigations into OSA
24 hour monitoring of O2- should show peaks and troughs
Peak flow recordings
Which monomers make up starch?
Amylase and amylopectin
How much carbohydrate are you supposed to eat a day?
Name another source of protein (other than food).
Endogenous sources such as the breakdown of enzymes
How much protein are you supposed to eat per day?
What makes up lipids?
Free fatty acids
Where are the parotid glands located?
Anterior to the ear, inferior to the zygomatic arch.
Where do secretions from the parotid glands enter the mouth?
Opposite the second maxillary molar.
Name the duct associated with the submandibular glands and the position of these glands.
Duct of Wharton
Medial to the body of the mandible
Name the position of the sublingual glands, and the ducts associated with these.
Medial to the submandibular glands. Duct of Ruvinus and common Bartholin connect with the duct of Wharton
Name the functions of the saliva
Bicarbonate ions, phosphate and mucus buffer bacterial metabolic acids.
Lysozyme digest bacterial cell walls
IgA contributes to immunity
Alpha amylase cleaves glycosidic 1-4 bonds.
Name the functional unit of salivary glands
Salivons (contained within lobules)
Describe the nervous innervation of the salivary gland and how secretion is stimulated.
Chemo-mechano receptors in the mouth are triggered by the presence of food. Afferent fibres lead back to the nucleus tractus solitares. A message is then passed on to the salivary nuclei in the medulla which stimulates salivary glands.
If an individual smells food, name the nervous stimulation pathway that leads to salivary production?
Acquired activation sends APs to the cerebral cortex, stimulates salivary centre in the medulla which stimulates saliva secretion.
What epithelium covers the oral cavity, laryngopharynx and oropharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium that is not keritanised.
What epithelium covers the nasal cavity and respiratory tract?
Name the 3 layers of the mucosa
Mucosa- epithelium (sits on basal lamina)
Lamina propia (loose connective tissue)
Muscularis mucosae (thin layer of smooth muscle)
Name the 4 layers of the gut lining
Describe the four layers of gut lining
Mucosa- 3 layers. Epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae
Submucosa- loose connective tissue
Muscularis externa- made up of an inner circular muscle layer and an outer longitudinal muscle layer.
Serosa (or adventitia)- outer layer of connective tissue that either suspends the digestive tract or attaches it to other organs.
Name the 5 regions of the stomach
Fundus- bit above the connection between oesophagus
cardia- just where the oesophagus meets it
Body- main part
Pylorus- near pyloric sphincter
Antrum-between body and pylorus.
Describe the gastro-oesophageal junction
Change from stratified squamous epithelium to columnar epithelium.
Describe the gastro-duodenal junction
Inner circular muscle becomes thicker to form pyloric sphincter.
Describe the cells of the small intestine
Enterocytes- tall, columnar cells with a brush border. Principle absorptive cell!!!
Goblet cells- produce mucin to protect epithelium and lubricate passage
Paneth cells- Found at the base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn- defensive function. Play a role in regulation of bacterial flora.
Neuroendocrine cells- Produce hormones that contribute to the control of secretion. (CCK, gastrin, Vasoactive intestinal peptide)
Stem cells- divide to replenish epithelium
Name the cells in the large intestine
Absorbtive cells- removal of salts (and subsequently water)
Goblet cells- secrete mucus to ease passage.
How can you distinguish between the duodenum, jejunum and ileum?
Duodenum- brunners glands (secrete a thin alkaline mucus to neutralise acidic chyme) in the submucosa
Jejunum- tallest villi, located on permanent circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa called plicae circularis
Ileum- Peyers patches (aggregations of lymphoid follicles often extending into the lamina propria).
Which cells release the primary secretion of saliva?
Which cells do the secondary modification of saliva?