Review posters 26/04/2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review posters 26/04/2016 Deck (23):
1

Name the three types of joints.

Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints.

2

Name the three subtypes of fibrous joints.

Sutures, fontanelles and syndesmoses.

3

Describe each of the three subtypes of fibrous joints.

Syndesmoses- bones joined together by fibrous sheet. Example: between tibia and fibia (interosseuss membrane).
Sutures- joints between bones of the skull. Highly stable.
Fontanelles- wide sutures in the neonatal skull. Allow sliding of the plates.

4

Name the two subtypes of cartilaginous joints.

Primary cartilaginous (synchondroses)
Secondary cartilaginous (symphyses)

5

Describe each of the subtypes of secondary cartilaginous joints.

Primary cartilaginous- bones joined by hyaline cartilage (permit growth in bone shaft). Example- head of femur.
Secondary cartilaginous- fibrocartilage, strong, slightly movable. Example- intervertebral discs.

6

Describe the features of a synovial joint.

Contain hyaline cartilage between articular surfaces
Two or more bones articulating together
Have a joint cavity which contains lubricating fluid.
Supported by ligaments
Associated with bursae- prevent friction around the joint.

7

Name the 5 subtypes of synovial joints.

Ball and socket.
Plane
Biaxial
Hinge
Pivot

8

Describe each of these.

Pivot- shaking of the head movement. Allows 45 degree rotation.
Ball and socket- hip joint. Permits movement on several axis.
Biaxial- allows a reasonable range of movement in one plane and a limited range in another.
Plane- sliding movement. Minimal movement in one plane
Hinge- Permit flexion and extension e.g. elbow joint.

9

Describe the ventilation perfusion relationship in the situation of a decreased perfusion.

Large airflow- decreased blood flow.
Increased O2 in alveoli. Causes relaxation of local pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Blood vessels dilate. Increased blood flow.
Decreased CO2 in alveoli. Causes contraction of airway smooth muscle. Increases resistance. Decreases airflow.

10

Describe the ventilation perfusion relationship in the scenario of decreased airflow.

Decreased airflow- increased CO2 in alveoli. Causes relaxation of local pulmonary smooth muscle. Therefore airways dilate, decreased resistance and increased airflow.
Increased perfusion- less O2 in alveoli. Causes contraction of local pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Constriction of vessel. Decreased perfusion.

11

Pneumothorax

Air in the pleural space.

12

Why might a patient have a simple pneumothorax?

Rupture of pleural blebs.
COPD
Asthma
Carcinoma
Lung abcesses

13

What are pleural blebs?

Small blister like airsacs in the pleural space.

14

Describe the symptoms of a tension pneumothorax

Tachycardia
Hypoxia
Unilateral pleuritic pain
Palor
Shortness of breath
ACUTE

15

Treatment of a tension pneumothorax (also treatment for medium and large pneumothorax's).

Aspiration.
check for recurrence.
If recurred, intercostal drain 5th intercostal space mid axillary line.
If tube bubbling
Surgery

16

Treatment of a simple pneumothorax

If asymptomatic- monitor and avoid strenuous exercise. Observe at two weekly intervals until air is reabsorbed.

17

Most common type of oesophageal tumour.

Adenocarcinoma

18

What are the causes of adenocarcinomas in the oesophagus?

Most likely due to reflux disorders such as Barrets oesophagus or GORD. Occurs in columnar epithelium.

19

What are the causes of squamous cell carcinomas in the oesophagus?

Alcohol and smoking

20

Symptoms of oesophageal tumours.

Dysphagia
Odynophagia
Haematemisis
Weight loss
Anorexia

21

Prevention of oesophageal tumours.

High fibre diet
High vitamin C
High folate

22

Investigations into oesophageal tumours.

Endoscopy
Ct scan
Barium swallow

23

Treatment of oesophageal tumours

Surgical (curative)- has to be no metastases and the patient has to be fit.
Palliative care
Radical chemotherapy