Review posters 09/05/2016 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review posters 09/05/2016 Deck (35):
1

How does starch and glycogen get into the body

Ingestion from food

2

What is the role of alpha amylase

Cleaves glycosidic 1-4 bonds. However it cannot cleave 1-6 glycosidic bonds (e.g. in amylase and amylopectin)

3

Where, other than the mouth, is alpha amylase produced?

The pancreas

4

In the duodenum, which enzymes digest glycogen or starch/oligosaccherides further?

Oligosacheridases such as
lactase- breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose
Sucrase- breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose
Maltase breaks down maltose into glucose and glucose
Isomaltase can split 1-6 bonds.

5

What are oligosaccherides?

2-10 glucose molecules joined together (e.g. sucrose and lactose)

6

How is glucose absorbed on the apical membrane?

Secondary active transport via SGLT1 receptors

7

How is galactose absorbed on the apical membrane?

Secondary active transport via SGLT1 receptors

8

How is fructose absorbed on the apical membrane?

Facilitated diffusion via GLUT 1 receptors

9

How do galactose, glucose and fructose get transported across the basolateral membrane?

Facilitated diffusion via GLUT 2 receptors.

10

What does HCl do to proteins?

Denatures them

11

Which enzyme breaks down proteins in the stomach? and how does it work?

Pepsin cleaves internal bonds (endopeptidase). It has a preference for large neutral peptide chains and aromatic chains.

12

What is pepsins optimum pH?

1.8-3.5

13

Name the 5 enzymes secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum to break down proteins. Also describe them and the products of their actions.

Trypsin (endopeptidase)- cleaves peptides to 2-4 amino acid chains
Chymotrypsin (endopeptidase)- cleaves peptides to 2-4 amino acid chains
Elastase (endopeptidase)- cleaves peptides to 2-4 amino acid chains
Procarboxypeptidase A- exopeptidase- makes single amino acids
Procarboxypeptidase B-exopeptidase-makes single amino acids.

14

What is the ratio of oligopeptides to amino acids after pancreatic peptidases have got involved?

75% are oligopeptidases
25% are single amino acids.

15

Where else are enzymes present that can digest protein?

Brush border and enterocyte cytoplasm.

16

What do the brush border enzymes do?

More attracted to long chain oligosaccherides (10aa)

17

What do the cytoplasmic enzymes do?

Break down tripeptides and dipeptides.

18

How are amino acids absorbed across the apical membrane?

Na+ dependent transfer by secondary active transport

19

How are oligosaccherides absorbed across the apical membrane

PepT1 by secondary active transport

20

How do oligosaccherides and amino acids get across the basolateral membrane

Facilitated diffusion

21

Describe the ECG of someone with sinus bradycardia

Normal P waves (0.08-0.1 seconds)
Normal QRS complexes (

22

Treatment of someone with sinus bradycardia?

Atropine will increase the HR

23

Describe the ECG of someone with sinus tachycardia

Normal P waves (0.08-0.1seconds)
Normal QRS complexes (

24

Treatment of sinus tachycardia

Beta blockers

25

Describe the ECG of a sinus arrhythmia.

Normal P waves (0.08-0.1)
Normal QRS complex (

26

Treatment of sinus arrhythmia

No treatment

27

What is SA block?

Blocked conduction between the sino-atrial node and the atria. The atria don't always depolarise.

28

Describe the ECG of second degree SA block

As if a beat has been dropped. This is due to failure of the SA node to depolarise the atria and therefore the ventricles will not be depolarised either. This leads to a drop of both the P wave, T wave and QRS complex.

29

Treatment of second degree SA block

If symptomatic- IV atropine

30

Describe the ECG of third degree SA block

FLAT LINE- then production of an escape beat 3-4 missed beats later.

31

Treatment of third degree SA block.

IV atropine.

32

Describe the ECG of atrial fibrillation.

Loss of P waves.
Atrial rate of 350-600bpm
ventricular rate of 100-180bpm

33

Treatment of a fib

Haemodynamically unstable- electrical cardioversion
Haemodynamically stable- Beta blocker, calcium channel blocker
If the patient has congestive heart failure- digitalis, diltiazem and amiodarone

34

Describe the ECG of atrial flutter

Saw tooth appearence.
Atrial rate of 250-350bpm
ventricular rhythm regular

35

Treatment of atrial flutter

Haemodynamically unstable- electrical cardioversion
Haemodynamically stable- beta blockers, calcium channel blockers
Congestive heart failure, digitalis, amiodarone and diltiazem.