Occasionally the clavicle is pierced by which nerve?
What is the weakest part of the clavicle?
The junction of its middle and lateral thirds
After clavicle fracture, what tends to cause medial fragment displacement?
What will happen to the shoulder following a clavicle break?
The trapezious can't hold the lateral fragment up, so the shoulder will drop.
Why are overriding bone fragments in a clavicle a concern?
They can shorten the bone
What is the first bone to ossify?
What would result from a defect in fusion of the clavicle ossification centers?
A Bony Defect between the lateral and medial thirds of the clavicle
What would it typically require to fracture the scapula? Why does it typically require so little treatment?
A pedestrian-vehicle accident. Its muscle coverings hold it in place.
Where do most fractures of the proximal humerus occur? What group is most likely to have these injuries?
The surgical neck. Elderly folks with osteoporosis.
What is an impacted fracture?
One bone fragment being driven into the spongy bone fragment of the other bone fragment.
What is an avulsion fracture of te greater tubercle of the humerus?
A small part of the tubercle is torn away from the humerus
What is a transverse fracture of the shaft of the humerus?
A fracture occurring in a transverse section to the arm
Which nerves are in direct contact with the surgical neck, radial groove, distal end, and medial epicondyle?
Surgical Neck -- Axillary Radial Groove -- Radial Distal End -- Median Medial Epicondyle -- Ulnar
What type of fracture is this?
Intercondylar Fracture of the Humerus
What is a fracture that breaks both the radius and ulna most likely to occur?
The middle of the forearm
What binds the radius and the ulna?
Most common fracture of the forearm?
Colles fracture (transverse fracture of distal 2 cm of the radius)
Name and decribe this fracture?
This is a comminuted fracture -- a bone that has been broken into several pieces
What is a dinner fork deformity?
A fracture of the distal radius in the forearm with dorsal radial displacement of the wrist and hand.
Why are fractures that break through epiphysial plates a concern?
The healing process may result in malalignment of the plate and disturbance of growth.
Most commonly fractured carpal?
Why are scaphoid injuries difficult to diagnose?
Initial radiographs tend not to reveal the fracture, so it gets misdiagnosed as a sprained wrist until bone resorption has made it more obvious.
Why are scaphoid fractures a serious concern?
They are slow to heal due to low blood supply and tend to require months to heal. If untreated avascular necrosis cancause tissue death and destabilize the wrist.
What nerve might be injured in a hamate fracture? What symptoms would you expect?
Ulnar Nerve. Decreased grip strength of the hand.
What is a boxer's fracture?
Fracture of the 5th metacarpal caused by an unskilled person punching something with a closed abducted fist.
Symptoms of Poland syndrome?
Absence of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor and absence of 2-4 ribs
Damage to what nerve would result in paralysis of the serratus anterior? How would you expect this to present? How is this nerve commonly injured?
Long thoracic nerve. Winged scapula and possibly an inability to adbuct above the horizontal position because of an inability to rotate the glenoid. Violent attack including knife fights or bullets.
Where is the triangle of auscultation?
Symptoms of Spinal Accessory Nerve Injury?
Marked ipsilateral weakness when the shoulders are elevated against resistance.
What nerve is commonly at risk during mastectomies and removal of scapular lymph nodes?