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Flashcards in Back Blue Boxes Deck (104)
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1

What is a common metabolic bone disease that is often detected during routine radiographic studies?

Vertebral body osteoporosis

2

What results from a net demineralization of the bones caused by a disruption of the normal balance of calcium deposition and resorption?

osteoporosis

3

Osteoporosis affects which areas of the skeleton the most?

neck of the femurbodies of the vertebraemetacarpalsradius

4

Vertical striping on radiographs of the vertebral column indicates what?

loss of the horizontal supporting trabeculae and thickening of vertical struts

5

What is the general name for posterior concave curvature of the spine?

lordosis

6

What is the general name for anterior concave curvature of the spine?

kyphosis

7

Surgical excision of one or more spinous processes and the adjacent supporting vertebral laminae

laminectomy

8

Performed surgically to gain access to the vertebral canal, providing exposure of the spinal cord

laminectomies

9

Often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots cuased by a tumor, herniated IV disc, or bony hypertrophy

surgical laminectomy

10

Which vertebrae can be dislocated in neck injuries with less force than is required to fracture them?

cervical vertebrae

11

Slight dislocation of the cervical vertebrae can occur without damaging the spinal cord because of what?

large vertebral canal in the cervical region

12

Stage I cervical vertebrae dislocation 

flexion sprain

13

Stage II cervical vertebrae dislocation

anterior subluxation with 25% anterior translation

14

Stage III cervical vertebrae dislocation

50% translation

15

Stage IV cervical vertebrae dislocation

complete dislocation

16

Bony ring, with two wedge-shaped lateral masses, connected by a relatively thin anterior and posterior arches and a transverse ligament

the atlas

17

A Jefferson or burst fracture is fracture of which vertebrae?

the atlas

18

Vertical forces, as would result from striking the bottom of a pool in a diving accident, can easily fracture which vertebrae

atlas

19

Spinal cord injury is more likely with a C1 fracture if what has also been ruptured?

transverse ligament

20

One of the most common injuries of the cervical vertebrae (up to 40%)

fratures of the vertebral arch of the axis

21

Bony column formed by the superior and inferior articular processes

pars interarticularis

22

Fracture in the pars interarticularis of the axis is called?

traumatic spondylolysis of C2

23

A traumatic spondylolysis of C2 most often occurs as a result of what?

hyperextension of the head on the neck (whiplash)

24

How was hyperextension of the head and neck used to kill people?

execution of criminals by hanging (hangman's fracture)

25

Paralysis of all four limbs

quadriplegia

26

Fracture that can result from a horizontal blow to the head or as a complication of osteopenia (40-50% of axis injuries)

fractures of the dens

27

Narrowing of the vertebral formane in one or more lumbar vertebrae

lumbar stenosis

28

Lumbar spinal nerves ______ in size as the vertebral column descends, but the IV foramen ______ in size

increasedecrease

29

When the developmental costal element of C7 becomes abnormally enlarged in 1-2% of people

cervical rib

30

When a supernumerary (extra) rib places pressure on structures that emerge from the superior thoracic aperture

thoracic outlet syndrome