Introduction Blue Boxes (8-20) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction Blue Boxes (8-20) Deck (43)
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Cause of Blueish Looking Skin (Cyanotic)

Hemoglobin appears deep purple/blue when depleted of Oxygen


Where to check for cyanosis

Thin Skin -- ex. Lips, Eyelids, Transparent Nails


Causes of reddish skin (erythema)

Heat, Infection, inflammation, allergic reactions


Cause of yellow skin

Jaundice caused by excess bilirubin


What are Langer Lines/Tension Lines? Their significance?

They are lines drawn to reflect the direction of collagen fibers in the skin. Cutting parallel to these lines in surgery allows faster healing/avoids puckering.


Cause and appearance of Stretch Marks?

If the skin expands too quickly, collagen fibers are stretched and damaged. Appears with bands of thin wrinkled skin with color change from red to purple and white.


What are first, second, and third degree burns? How do they differ?

First Degree -- Epidermal damage. Erythema, edema, desquamination.
Second Degree -- Epidermal and superficial dermis damage. Blistering, Most Painful.
Third Degree -- Full thickness, sometimes into muscle. No pain at burn site, requires graft.


What is the value of fascial planes in surgery?

Minimally invasive access to deep tissues


What is an accessory bone?

Extra bone made from an extra ossification center or failure of two bones to appropriately fuse.


Areas of bone that combine the flat bones of the cranium

Sutural Bones


What are heterotrophic bones?

Bones that form in soft tissues where they are not normally present. Ex. horse riders can develop them in their thighs.


What cells secrete collagen to aid in bone repair?



What is reduction of a fracture?

Brining together broken ends of a bone and approximating their natural positions.


What is a collar of callus?

A ring of collagen that stabilizes bones during bone healing


What is a greenstick fracture?

An incomplete break caused by bending of bone


What is osteoporosis?

A reduction in the quantity of bone or atrophy of skeletal tissue.


Why would a patient undergo a sternal puncture?

To extract bone marrow


How can bones be studied to give an assessment of age?

Studies of the diaphysis/epiphysis/epiphysial plate


What are lines of arrested growth?

In patients malnourished through development, cartilage will begin to degenerate without proper repair. These lines of degeneration will eventually calcify and become bones with thickened trabeculae.


Why is it important to know positions of epiphysial plates?

To distinguish between epiphysial plates and fractures in young patients.


What is avascular necrosis?

Tissue death from lack of blood flow


What are osteochondroses?

Avascular necrosis of epiphyses in children.


What is a fontanelle? What clinical information can you gather from it?

Fibrous tissue covering the portion of a newborn's skull that hasn't made full contact yet. If it bulges, increased cranial pressure. If it is depressed, dehydration.


What is osteoarthritis? Symptoms?

Degenerative joint disease. Stiffness, discomfort, pain.


What is arthroscopy?

Using a small camera and puncture incisions to perform surgeries with minimal opening, allowing rapid healing time.


Concerns regarding lost muscle tone in patients?

It may lead to abnormal joint placement, dislocations in patient transitions, development of fibrotic tissue, removing chance for repair


Why is the hamstring pulled more frequently than other muscles?

Their joint allows for greater flexion than the point at which muscle damage can begin to occur and frequent eccentric contraction


Two common ways to test muscle activity?

Patient resists examiner movements, or physician performs movements to resist patient


What is EMG?

Electromyography is the measure of electrical action potentials of muscles.


What is compensatory hypertrophy of the heart?

Myocardium responds to increased demands by increasing the size of its fibers.