Flashcards in Introduction Blue Boxes (8-20) Deck (43)
Cause of Blueish Looking Skin (Cyanotic)
Hemoglobin appears deep purple/blue when depleted of Oxygen
Where to check for cyanosis
Thin Skin -- ex. Lips, Eyelids, Transparent Nails
Causes of reddish skin (erythema)
Heat, Infection, inflammation, allergic reactions
Cause of yellow skin
Jaundice caused by excess bilirubin
What are Langer Lines/Tension Lines? Their significance?
They are lines drawn to reflect the direction of collagen fibers in the skin. Cutting parallel to these lines in surgery allows faster healing/avoids puckering.
Cause and appearance of Stretch Marks?
If the skin expands too quickly, collagen fibers are stretched and damaged. Appears with bands of thin wrinkled skin with color change from red to purple and white.
What are first, second, and third degree burns? How do they differ?
First Degree -- Epidermal damage. Erythema, edema, desquamination.
Second Degree -- Epidermal and superficial dermis damage. Blistering, Most Painful.
Third Degree -- Full thickness, sometimes into muscle. No pain at burn site, requires graft.
What is the value of fascial planes in surgery?
Minimally invasive access to deep tissues
What is an accessory bone?
Extra bone made from an extra ossification center or failure of two bones to appropriately fuse.
Areas of bone that combine the flat bones of the cranium
What are heterotrophic bones?
Bones that form in soft tissues where they are not normally present. Ex. horse riders can develop them in their thighs.
What cells secrete collagen to aid in bone repair?
What is reduction of a fracture?
Brining together broken ends of a bone and approximating their natural positions.
What is a collar of callus?
A ring of collagen that stabilizes bones during bone healing
What is a greenstick fracture?
An incomplete break caused by bending of bone
What is osteoporosis?
A reduction in the quantity of bone or atrophy of skeletal tissue.
Why would a patient undergo a sternal puncture?
To extract bone marrow
How can bones be studied to give an assessment of age?
Studies of the diaphysis/epiphysis/epiphysial plate
What are lines of arrested growth?
In patients malnourished through development, cartilage will begin to degenerate without proper repair. These lines of degeneration will eventually calcify and become bones with thickened trabeculae.
Why is it important to know positions of epiphysial plates?
To distinguish between epiphysial plates and fractures in young patients.
What is avascular necrosis?
Tissue death from lack of blood flow
What are osteochondroses?
Avascular necrosis of epiphyses in children.
What is a fontanelle? What clinical information can you gather from it?
Fibrous tissue covering the portion of a newborn's skull that hasn't made full contact yet. If it bulges, increased cranial pressure. If it is depressed, dehydration.
What is osteoarthritis? Symptoms?
Degenerative joint disease. Stiffness, discomfort, pain.
What is arthroscopy?
Using a small camera and puncture incisions to perform surgeries with minimal opening, allowing rapid healing time.
Concerns regarding lost muscle tone in patients?
It may lead to abnormal joint placement, dislocations in patient transitions, development of fibrotic tissue, removing chance for repair
Why is the hamstring pulled more frequently than other muscles?
Their joint allows for greater flexion than the point at which muscle damage can begin to occur and frequent eccentric contraction
Two common ways to test muscle activity?
Patient resists examiner movements, or physician performs movements to resist patient
What is EMG?
Electromyography is the measure of electrical action potentials of muscles.