Heart and Mediastinum Blue Boxes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Heart and Mediastinum Blue Boxes Deck (31)
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1

Division between the superior and inferior mediastinum

transverse thoracic plane

2

Anatomical descriptions describe viscera as if the person was in what position?

supine

3

In the supine position:

Arch of aorta lies superior to transverse thoracic plane; bifurcation of the trachea is transected by the transverse thoracic plane; central tendon of the diaphragm lies at the xiphisternal junction and vertebra T9

4

When standing or sitting upright:

Arch of aorta is transected by the transverse thoracic plane; tracheal bifurcation is inferior to transverse thoracic plane; central tendon of diaphragm may fall to the middle of the xiphoid process and T9-T10 IV disks

5

Procedure where surgeons use an endoscope to view or biopsy mediastinal lymph nodes

mediastinoscopy

6

Removing part of costal cartilage to explore the mediastinum

anterior thoracotomy

7

Massive enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes and widening of the mediastinum is caused by what?

malignant lymphoma

8

Hypertrophy of the heart and widening of the inferior mediastinum is often caused by what?

congestive heart failure (venous blood returns to the heart at a rate that exceeds cardiac output)

9

Can a head-on-collision cause widening of the mediastinum?

Yes, may produce a hemorrhage

10

The transverse pericardial sinus is located where?

posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk. Important in coronary artery bypass grafting (clamping of arteries)

11

What surrounds the inferior and superior venae cavae in the mediastinum?

pericardium

12

Inflammation of the pericardium

pericarditis

13

Friction of the serous layers of the pericardium

pericardial friction rub

14

pericardial effusion

The passage of fluid from pericardial capillaries into the pericardial cavity, or an accumulation of pus caused by an inflammatory disease.

15

Non-inflammatory pericardial effusions often occur from what?

congestive heart failure (also causes right cardiac hypertension)

16

A potentially lethal condition caused by extensive pericardial effusion resulting in reduced cardiac output

cardiac tamponade (heart cant expand fully, which limits amount of blood received)

17

Blood in the pericardial cavity

hemopericardium (also produces cardiac tamponade)

18

Myocardial infarction

heart attack

19

Dissection of air or gas along connective tissue planes into the pericardial sac in patients with pneumothorax

pneumopericardium

20

Drainage of fluid from the pericardial cavity via the left 5th or 6th intercostal space near the sternum

pericardiocentis

21

Stopping the escape of blood form the heart in emergency situations is called what?

stasis of the hemorrhage

22

Reversal of embryonic heart resulting in the apex on the right side

dextrocardia (most common positional abnormality of the heart)

23

situs inversus

dextrocardia with transposition of thoracic and abdominal viscera

24

isolated dextrocardia

transposition only affecting the heart accompanied with transposition of the great arteries

25

A technique in which a radiopague catheter is inserted into a peripheral vein into the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary arteries

cardiac catheterization

26

Observing the flow of radiopague contrast dye in real time

cardiac ultrasonography (cineradiography)

27

The primordial atrium is represented by what in the adult

right auricle

28

The definitive atrium includes most of which embryological structure?

sinus venosus

29

What is the line of fusion of the primordial atrium and the sinus venarum indicated by?

internally by the crista terminalis and externally by the sulcus terminalis

30

When the oval foramen closes after the first breath what is formed?

oval fossa and the border of the oval fossa