Flashcards in Heart and Mediastinum Blue Boxes Deck (31)
Division between the superior and inferior mediastinum
transverse thoracic plane
Anatomical descriptions describe viscera as if the person was in what position?
In the supine position:
Arch of aorta lies superior to transverse thoracic plane; bifurcation of the trachea is transected by the transverse thoracic plane; central tendon of the diaphragm lies at the xiphisternal junction and vertebra T9
When standing or sitting upright:
Arch of aorta is transected by the transverse thoracic plane; tracheal bifurcation is inferior to transverse thoracic plane; central tendon of diaphragm may fall to the middle of the xiphoid process and T9-T10 IV disks
Procedure where surgeons use an endoscope to view or biopsy mediastinal lymph nodes
Removing part of costal cartilage to explore the mediastinum
Massive enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes and widening of the mediastinum is caused by what?
Hypertrophy of the heart and widening of the inferior mediastinum is often caused by what?
congestive heart failure (venous blood returns to the heart at a rate that exceeds cardiac output)
Can a head-on-collision cause widening of the mediastinum?
Yes, may produce a hemorrhage
The transverse pericardial sinus is located where?
posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk. Important in coronary artery bypass grafting (clamping of arteries)
What surrounds the inferior and superior venae cavae in the mediastinum?
Inflammation of the pericardium
Friction of the serous layers of the pericardium
pericardial friction rub
The passage of fluid from pericardial capillaries into the pericardial cavity, or an accumulation of pus caused by an inflammatory disease.
Non-inflammatory pericardial effusions often occur from what?
congestive heart failure (also causes right cardiac hypertension)
A potentially lethal condition caused by extensive pericardial effusion resulting in reduced cardiac output
cardiac tamponade (heart cant expand fully, which limits amount of blood received)
Blood in the pericardial cavity
hemopericardium (also produces cardiac tamponade)
Dissection of air or gas along connective tissue planes into the pericardial sac in patients with pneumothorax
Drainage of fluid from the pericardial cavity via the left 5th or 6th intercostal space near the sternum
Stopping the escape of blood form the heart in emergency situations is called what?
stasis of the hemorrhage
Reversal of embryonic heart resulting in the apex on the right side
dextrocardia (most common positional abnormality of the heart)
dextrocardia with transposition of thoracic and abdominal viscera
transposition only affecting the heart accompanied with transposition of the great arteries
A technique in which a radiopague catheter is inserted into a peripheral vein into the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary arteries
Observing the flow of radiopague contrast dye in real time
cardiac ultrasonography (cineradiography)
The primordial atrium is represented by what in the adult
The definitive atrium includes most of which embryological structure?
What is the line of fusion of the primordial atrium and the sinus venarum indicated by?
internally by the crista terminalis and externally by the sulcus terminalis