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Flashcards in Science & Technology Deck (76):
1

Nicolaus Copernicus

15th and 16th-century Renaissance Polish astronomer who argued that the Earth moves about the Sun, displacing the Earth from the center of the universe

2

Johannes Gutenberg

  • German printer who invented the printing press and movable type printing in the mid-15th century
  • The first book printed from movable type was the Gutenberg Bible, of which 48 copies survive

3

Jacques Cousteau

  • French oceanographer and innovator of the 20th century who explored and studied the sea and all forms of marine wildlife
  • He pioneered marine conservation and, along with Émile Gagnan, invented the Aqua-Lung, the first self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA)

4

Tim Berners-Lee

British computer scientist and the inventor of the World Wide Web

5

Nikola Tesla

Serbian-American inventor and engineer of the 19th and 20th centuries noted for his contributions to the design of the modern AC electric power system

6

Galileo Galilei

  • 16th and 17th-century Italian physicist and philosopher who was a central figure in the Scientific Revolution
  • He proved that objects with different masses fall at the same velocity and discovered the moons of Jupiter
  • He controversially supported heliocentrism, made improvements to the design of the telescope, and laid the groundwork for modern kinetics, dynamics, and astronomy

7

Albert Einstein

  • German-born physicist of the 20th century often considered the father of modern physics thanks to his development of the general theory of relativity
  • Although he won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which helped develop quantum theory), he is best known for his mass-energy equivalence formula E=mc2 (which helped lead to the development of nuclear fission)

8

Isaac Newton

  • English scientist of the 17th and 18th centuries, considered one of the greatest scientists in human history
  • He played an enormous role in developing modern understanding of calculus, light, motion, and gravity

9

Guglielmo Marconi

  • Italian inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who developed radio transmission and wireless telegraphy
  • He won the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics

10

Louis Pasteur

  • French scientist of the 19th century who helped prove the germ theory of disease -- the notion that diseases are caused by microorganisms
  • One of the founders of microbiology, he created vaccines for anthrax and rabies, and developed pasteurization, the process of heating fluids so as to kill harmful bacteria

11

Charles Darwin

  • English naturalist of the 19th century who helped develop the theory of evolution
  • His most famous work, The Origin of Species, is considered to be the foundation of modern evolutionary biology

12

Edward Jenner

English physician of the 18th and 19th centuries who pioneered the smallpox vaccine and who is now regarded as the father of immunology

13

Florence Nightingale

  • English nurse of the 19th and 20th centuries who is regarded as the founder of modern nursing
  • She rose to fame during the Crimean War, where she tended wounded soldiers day and night, earning her the nickname "Lady with the Lamp"
  • In London, she later established the first secular nursing school in the world

14

Joseph Lister

19th-century English surgeon who pioneered antiseptic surgery, promoting the idea of sterile surgery to reduce infections

15

Louis Daguerre

19th-century French artist and physicist most known for inventing the daguerreotype process of photography, and as a result, as a father of photography

16

Johannes Kepler

  • German mathematician of the 16th and 17th centuries and one of the major figures of the scientific revolution
  • While he invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion

17

Marie Curie

  • Polish-born physicist of the 19th and 20th centuries who worked mainly in France and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize
  • She is best known for her research on radioactivity and for her techniques of isolating radioactive isotopes

18

Léon Foucault

19th-century French physicist best known for inventing a pendulum (named after him) that demonstrates the rotation of the Earth

19

Michael Faraday

  • English scientist of the 19th century most famous for establishing the notion of the electromagnetic field in physics
  • He is credited with the discoveries of diamagnetism, electromagnetic induction, and the laws of electrolysis

20

Niels Bohr

  • 20th-century Danish physicist best known for developing the model of the atom with a nucleus at the center and electrons orbiting around it
  • Also a contributor to both the Manhattan Project and the field of quantum mechanics, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922

21

15th and 16th-century Renaissance Polish astronomer who argued that the Earth moves about the Sun, displacing the Earth from the center of the universe

Nicolaus Copernicus

22

  • German printer who invented the printing press and movable type printing in the mid-15th century
  • The first book printed from movable type was the Gutenberg Bible, of which 48 copies survive

Johannes Gutenberg

23

  • French oceanographer and innovator of the 20th century who explored and studied the sea and all forms of marine wildlife
  • He pioneered marine conservation and, along with Émile Gagnan, invented the Aqua-Lung, the first self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA)

Jacques Cousteau

24

British computer scientist and the inventor of the World Wide Web

Tim Berners-Lee

25

Serbian-American inventor and engineer of the 19th and 20th centuries noted for his contributions to the design of the modern AC electric power system

Nikola Tesla

26

  • 16th and 17th-century Italian physicist and philosopher who was a central figure in the Scientific Revolution
  • He proved that objects with different masses fall at the same velocity and discovered the moons of Jupiter
  • He controversially supported heliocentrism, made improvements to the design of the telescope, and laid the groundwork for modern kinetics, dynamics, and astronomy

Galileo Galilei

27

  • German-born physicist of the 20th century often considered the father of modern physics thanks to his development of the general theory of relativity
  • Although he won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which helped develop quantum theory), he is best known for his mass-energy equivalence formula E=mc2 (which helped lead to the development of nuclear fission)

Albert Einstein

28

  • English scientist of the 17th and 18th centuries, considered one of the greatest scientists in human history
  • He played an enormous role in developing modern understanding of calculus, light, motion, and gravity

Isaac Newton

29

  • Italian inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who developed radio transmission and wireless telegraphy
  • He won the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics

Guglielmo Marconi

30

  • French scientist of the 19th century who helped prove the germ theory of disease -- the notion that diseases are caused by microorganisms
  • One of the founders of microbiology, he created vaccines for anthrax and rabies, and developed pasteurization, the process of heating fluids so as to kill harmful bacteria

Louis Pasteur

31

  • English naturalist of the 19th century who helped develop the theory of evolution
  • His most famous work, The Origin of Species, is considered to be the foundation of modern evolutionary biology

Charles Darwin

32

English physician of the 18th and 19th centuries who pioneered the smallpox vaccine and who is now regarded as the father of immunology

Edward Jenner

33

  • English nurse of the 19th and 20th centuries who is regarded as the founder of modern nursing
  • She rose to fame during the Crimean War, where she tended wounded soldiers day and night, earning her the nickname "Lady with the Lamp"
  • In London, she later established the first secular nursing school in the world

Florence Nightingale

34

19th-century English surgeon who pioneered antiseptic surgery, promoting the idea of sterile surgery to reduce infections

Joseph Lister

35

19th-century French artist and physicist most known for inventing the daguerreotype process of photography, and as a result, as a father of photography

Louis Daguerre

36

  • German mathematician of the 16th and 17th centuries and one of the major figures of the scientific revolution
  • While he invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion

Johannes Kepler

37

  • Polish-born physicist of the 19th and 20th centuries who worked mainly in France and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize
  • She is best known for her research on radioactivity and for her techniques of isolating radioactive isotopes

Marie Curie

38

19th-century French physicist best known for inventing a pendulum (named after him) that demonstrates the rotation of the Earth

Léon Foucault

39

  • English scientist of the 19th century most famous for establishing the notion of the electromagnetic field in physics
  • He is credited with the discoveries of diamagnetism, electromagnetic induction, and the laws of electrolysis

Michael Faraday

40

  • 20th-century Danish physicist best known for developing the model of the atom with a nucleus at the center and electrons orbiting around it
  • Also a contributor to both the Manhattan Project and the field of quantum mechanics, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922

Niels Bohr

41

Alfred Nobel

  • Wealthy Swedish scientist and arms manufacturer of the 19th century who invented dynamite
  • After his death, his fortune was used to establish the Nobel Prizes

42

Enrico Fermi

  • Italian-American physicist of the 20th century most known for building the first nuclear reactor
  • He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938

43

Euclid

Ancient Greek mathematician and the founder of the study of geometry

44

Ptolemy

  • Greek-Roman philosopher and citizen of Egypt of the first and second centuries A.D.
  • He authored several important and highly influential scientific treatises on astrology and mathematics

45

Louis Braille

  • 19th-century Frenchman who was blinded as a child and later developed a new system of reading and writing for the blind, later named in his honor as braille
  • The braille system remains enormously important to the blind as a way to communicate and learn, and has been adapted for many languages

46

Jonas Salk

20th-century American medical researcher who discovered and developed the first polio vaccine

47

J. Robert Oppenheimer

  • American physicist of the 20th century who, along with Enrico Fermi, is known as the "father of the atomic bomb"
  • Played a major role in the Manhattan Project, which developed the first nuclear weapons

48

Eli Whitney

18th and 19th-century American inventor, famous for inventing the cotton gin, one of the major inventions of the Industrial Revolution

49

Thomas Edison

American inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who patented more than a thousand devices and aided in the development and design of numerous others, many of them instrumental to modern life, such as the phonograph, the motion picture camera, power stations and generators, and the incandescent light bulb

50

Henry Ford

  • American industrialist of the 19th and 20th centuries who founded Ford Motor Company
  • He championed the assembly line technique of mass production, using it to build the Model T automobile, which, although not the first automobile, revolutionized transportation

51

Alexander Graham Bell

  • Scottish-born American inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who is credited with the invention of the telephone
  • He devoted much of his research and career to elocution, hearing, speech, and the education of the deaf
  • He helped found the National Geographic Society

52

the Wright Brothers

  • Orville and Wilbur, two American brothers and inventors of the 19th and 20th centuries who in 1903 built the first successful airplane and achieved the first sustained human flight
  • They subsequently developed their machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft and invented three-axis control, which remains the standard system of aircraft controls

53

Levi Strauss

  • Bavarian-born American businessman who founded the first company, Levi Strauss & Co., to manufacture blue jeans, which were invented by him and tailor Jacob Davis
  • Technically, what they actually invented was working pants with reinforcements from copper rivets at points of stress

54

Elias Howe

American inventor of the 19th century who perfected the design of the modern sewing machine, which incorporated a lockstitch design

55

Douglas Engelbart

  • American inventor who is best known for his innovations in human-computer interaction, most notably the invention of the computer mouse
  • He is also noted for his work on networked computers and hypertext

56

Samuel Morse

American inventor of the 19th century who invented the single-wire telegraph and co-invented Morse code

57

Leo Baekeland

  • Belgian-born American chemist of the 19th and 20th centuries best known for inventing Bakelite (in 1907), a nonflammable and inexpensive plastic
  • Recognized in 1993 as having been the world's first synthetic plastic, Bakelite helped bring about the beginning of the modern plastics industry

58

Pythagoras

Greek mathematician and philosopher of the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. who is widely credited with the discovery and proof of the Pythagorean theorem in geometry

59

  • Wealthy Swedish scientist and arms manufacturer of the 19th century who invented dynamite
  • After his death, his fortune was used to establish the Nobel Prizes

Alfred Nobel

60

  • Italian-American physicist of the 20th century most known for building the first nuclear reactor
  • He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938

Enrico Fermi

61

Ancient Greek mathematician and the founder of the study of geometry

Euclid

62

  • Greek-Roman philosopher and citizen of Egypt of the first and second centuries A.D.
  • He authored several important and highly influential scientific treatises on astrology and mathematics

Ptolemy

63

  • 19th-century Frenchman who was blinded as a child and later developed a new system of reading and writing for the blind, later named in his honor as braille
  • The braille system remains enormously important to the blind as a way to communicate and learn, and has been adapted for many languages

Louis Braille

64

20th-century American medical researcher who discovered and developed the first polio vaccine

Jonas Salk

65

  • American physicist of the 20th century who, along with Enrico Fermi, is known as the "father of the atomic bomb"
  • Played a major role in the Manhattan Project, which developed the first nuclear weapons

J. Robert Oppenheimer

66

18th and 19th-century American inventor, famous for inventing the cotton gin, one of the major inventions of the Industrial Revolution

Eli Whitney

67

American inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who patented more than a thousand devices and aided in the development and design of numerous others, many of them instrumental to modern life, such as the phonograph, the motion picture camera, power stations and generators, and the incandescent light bulb

Thomas Edison

68

  • American industrialist of the 19th and 20th centuries who founded Ford Motor Company
  • He championed the assembly line technique of mass production, using it to build the Model T automobile, which, although not the first automobile, revolutionized transportation

Henry Ford

69

  • Scottish-born American inventor of the 19th and 20th centuries who is credited with the invention of the telephone
  • He devoted much of his research and career to elocution, hearing, speech, and the education of the deaf
  • He helped found the National Geographic Society

Alexander Graham Bell

70

  • Orville and Wilbur, two American brothers and inventors of the 19th and 20th centuries who in 1903 built the first successful airplane and achieved the first sustained human flight
  • They subsequently developed their machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft and invented three-axis control, which remains the standard system of aircraft controls

the Wright Brothers

71

  • Bavarian-born American businessman who founded the first company, Levi Strauss & Co., to manufacture blue jeans, which were invented by him and tailor Jacob Davis
  • Technically, what they actually invented was working pants with reinforcements from copper rivets at points of stress

Levi Strauss

72

American inventor of the 19th century who perfected the design of the modern sewing machine, which incorporated a lockstitch design

Elias Howe

73

  • American inventor who is best known for his innovations in human-computer interaction, most notably the invention of the computer mouse
  • He is also noted for his work on networked computers and hypertext

Douglas Engelbart

74

American inventor of the 19th century who invented the single-wire telegraph and co-invented Morse code

Samuel Morse

75

  • Belgian-born American chemist of the 19th and 20th centuries best known for inventing Bakelite (in 1907), a nonflammable and inexpensive plastic
  • Recognized in 1993 as having been the world's first synthetic plastic, Bakelite helped bring about the beginning of the modern plastics industry

Leo Baekeland

76

Greek mathematician and philosopher of the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. who is widely credited with the discovery and proof of the Pythagorean theorem in geometry

Pythagoras