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Flashcards in Section A Deck (227):
1

Name 3 cool season grass hays and 3 warm season grass hays recommended for horses.

Warm-bahiagrass, Bermuda grass, prairie grass, teff grass
Cool- Timothy, smooth brome , orchard, tall fescue, red canary grass

2

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

3

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

4

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

5

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

6

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

7

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

8

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

9

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

10

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

11

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

12

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

13

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

14

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

15

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

16

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

17

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

18

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

19

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

20

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

21

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

22

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

23

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

24

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

25

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

26

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

27

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

28

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

29

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

30

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

31

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

32

What is the mineral matter in a feed from the residue remaining after complete burning of organic matter?

Ash

33

What are simple inorganic compounds that dissolve in water and are frequently given to endurance horses?

Electrolytes

34

What are the 3 most common dietary supplements to provide minerals to horses?

Steamed bone meal, dicalcium phosphate and moncalcium phosphate

35

A vitamin D deficiency can only occur from what?

Inadequate sunlight

36

Name 4 different methods by which oats are fed or processed.

Whole, bruised, boiled, rolled, and crimped

37

What is the term for hay that is packed together and bound into a unit with wire or string and generally weighs about 60 pounds on average?

Bale of hay

38

The lack of one or more basic nutrients, such as a vitamin, mineral or amino acid is called what?

Deficiency

39

Ricin is the poisonous substance found in the seeds of what plant?

Caster Oil plant

40

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

41

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

42

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

43

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

44

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

45

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

46

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

47

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

48

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

49

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

50

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

51

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

52

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

53

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

54

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

55

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

56

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

57

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

58

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

59

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

60

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

61

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

62

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

63

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

64

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

65

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

66

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

67

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

68

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

69

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

70

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

71

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

72

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

73

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

74

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

75

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

76

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

77

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

78

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

79

The liver secretes bile which is delivered by the bile duct directly to what structure?

Duodenum

80

What structure delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum?

Bile duct

81

In the intestine, bile aids in digestion of what nutrient?

Fat

82

Name the gland that secretes insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

83

The horses stomach secretes what two protein digesting enzymes?

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

84

Ricin is the poisonous substance found in the seeds of what plant?

Caster Oil plant

85

What is lysin?

Amino acid necessary for growth and milk production

86

What enzyme breaks down most proteins to polypeptides in the stomach?

Pepsin

87

Pyridoxine is another name for what vitamin?

vitamin B6

88

What is the seed of flax used both as a laxative and to improve the condition and gloss of the coat?

Linseed

89

What type of pasture can cause a lack of milk production in mares?

Fescue

90

What feed processing method produces a compressed feed that is easily stored, usually cylindrical in shape and less dusty than other feeds?

Pellets

91

What is it called when a compound is split into fragments by the addition of water?

Hydrolysis

92

What type of plant material is high in fiber and includes pasture, hay, chaff, straw and silage?

Forage (also roughage)

93

What vitamin is directly involved in the use of calcium and phosphors and sunlight and sun-cured forages are good sources of it?

Vitamin D

94

What is the general term for a nutritional disorder caused by either an imbalanced or insufficient diet and may be due to poor absorption and utilization of nutrients?

Malnutrition

95

Dogbane can cause what if eaten?

Sudden death; due to heart failure

96

The indigestible fiber in the diet needed to give bulk and keep the system functioning right is called what?

Roughage

97

What term describes when feed and or water is always available to the horse?

Free choice

98

Horses require this nonmetallic chemical element in minute amounts and a deficiency may cause a goiter. Name this element.

Iodine

99

Adipose tissue stores which body substance?

Fat

100

What are any group of plants of the pea family that store nitrogen in the soil?

Legumes

101

What is the condition of being very fat and overweight generally due to excess feed and inadequate exercise?

Obesity

102

The feed additive, rumensin, is used to increase the rate of weight gain in cattle, why isn't it used for horses?

It is poisonous to horses

103

A deficiency of what vitamin can cause moon blindness?

Vitamin A

104

What is the byproduct of sucrose refined from sugar cane or sugar beets that is used to coat grain in sweet feeds?

Molasses

105

What is any of a group of complex compounds that contain nitrogen and are composed of amino acids?

Proteins

106

What is a type of poison that can be found in arrow grass, Johnson grass, Sudan grass, pin cherry, common sorghum, wild black cherry, elder berg and choke cherry or flax?

Cyanide

107

What does it mean if something is "fetid"?

It has a rank or disagreeable smell

108

What is a form of livestock feed that is fermented and preserved in a silo or other structure?

Silage

109

Roughages, concentrates, and supplements are the 3 main types of what?

Feed

110

Generally speaking, what is the total digestible nutrient percentage in most roughages?

About 50%

111

What is persistent and excessive thirst?

Polydipsia

112

What term describes something that tends to evaporate?

Volatile

113

Which mineral works with vitamin E to preventing destruction of muscle?

Selenium

114

What is the general term for a ration that supplies proper amounts of all nutrients needed by the animal?

Balanced ration

115

Horses require this nonmetallic chemical element in minute amounts and a deficiency may cause a goiter. Name this element.

Iodine

116

Adipose tissue stores which body substance?

Fat

117

What are any group of plants of the pea family that store nitrogen in the soil?

Legumes

118

Which thiamine and niacin-rich-by-product of grain milling is ground and dampened before being used as a mild laxative and aids digestion in horses?

Bran

119

Which mineral works with vitamin E to preventing destruction of muscle?

Selenium

120

What term describes something that tends to evaporate?

Volatile

121

What is persistent and excessive thirst?

Polydipsia

122

Generally speaking, what is the total digestible nutrient percentage in most roughages?

About 50%

123

Roughages, concentrates, and supplements are the 3 main types of what?

Feed

124

What is a form of livestock feed that is fermented and preserved in a silo or other structure?

Silage

125

What does it mean if something is "fetid"?

It has a rank or disagreeable smell

126

What is a type of poison that can be found in arrow grass, Johnson grass, Sudan grass, pin cherry, common sorghum, wild black cherry, elder berg and choke cherry or flax?

Cyanide

127

What is any of a group of complex compounds that contain nitrogen and are composed of amino acids?

Proteins

128

What is the byproduct of sucrose refined from sugar cane or sugar beets that is used to coat grain in sweet feeds?

Molasses

129

Which thiamine and niacin-rich-by-product of grain milling is ground and dampened before being used as a mild laxative and aids digestion in horses?

Bran

130

A deficiency of what vitamin can cause moon blindness?

Vitamin A

131

The feed additive, rumensin, is used to increase the rate of weight gain in cattle, why isn't it used for horses?

It is poisonous to horses

132

What is the condition of being very fat and overweight generally due to excess feed and inadequate exercise?

Obesity

133

What is the term for the ground edible seed coats which are a by-product of grain milling and a good source of thiamine and niacin?

Bran

134

Lack of vitamin E can cause what 2 things?

Anemia and white muscle disease

135

What is gruel?

semi-liquid food made from cereal grain

136

Name 3 problems that can occur due to overfeeding.

1. Handling problems
2. Founder
3. Colic
4. Tying up
5. Obesity

137

What vitamin is responsible for the production of the blood-clotting factor?

Vitamin K

138

What would Metamucil be used for in horses?

Fiber supplement used to prevent and treat sand impactions

139

Which vitamin is required for normal body cell function especially in the skin, hair and eyes?

vitamin A

140

Generally speaking, what is the total digestible nutrient percentage in most concentrates?

About 75%

141

What is the general term for harvesting cereals or other edible seeds including oats, corn, milo, and barley?

Grain

142

What is the enzyme that transforms starch into maltose in the horse's mouth?

Ptylalin

143

What poison does Johnson Grass contain and what condition can it cause in the horse?

Cyanide and can cause difficulty breathing, cherry-red blood, and death.

144

What is the term for delivery of a dead foal 300 or more days after conception?

Stillbirth

145

What is the correct term for a characteristic that appears only when both members of a pair genes are the same and is the opposite of dominant?

Recessive

146

What is the automatic suckling when a finger or nipple is placed in a newborn foals mouth?

Suckle reflex (suck reflex)

147

What is the period of rapid follicle growth in the estrous cycle just prior to heat or estrus?

Proestrus

148

What is the large, brown, irregularity shaped, rubbery mass found in the allantoic fluid and is passed out with the foal at birth?

Hippomane

149

What term describes the ability to pass outstanding characteristics to offspring?

Prepotency

150

What is a sudden variation that is later passed on through inheritance and results from changes in a gene or genes?

Mutation

151

Effects of vitamin A deficiency occurs most commonly in what group of horses and why?

Decreased performance or increased sweating

152

What does the horse's body look like when he has moderate to marked fluorosis?

the stand arched or humped up back, hair is rough or dry and shedding the winter coat happens slowly in spring.

153

Why should water with high algae growth be avoided?

Because of the potential presence of the highly toxic blue green algae species.

154

During cold weather, in what 4 ways may you aid your horse in consuming water to reduce the risk of colic?

1- remove ice several times daily if necessary to keep the water open. 2- Adding a few percent of salt to grain. 3- feeding hot bran mashes. 4- using a water heater.

155

Define the term, postpartum.

Occurring after giving birth

156

What are 4 disadvantages of using protein for dietary energy?

protein will cost more (ex: soybean meal), 3-6 times more heat is produced from protein causing excess body heat, increasing sweat that loses nutrients, nitrogen is removed from protein when it is used for energy, causing urinary ammonia in a horses stall possibly causing respiratory diseases, increased heart rate and increased respiratory rate can also be problems

157

Initially, what can happen to foals that have an excess of zinc?

enlargement of the growth plates of long bones

158

What mineral deficiency can cause a uterine artery rupture in aged parturient mares?

copper deficiency

159

Feeding inadequate forage to the horse not on pasture greatly increases the risk of what 3 desirable behaviors?

Eating wood, eating feces, tail and mane chewing

160

What percentage of body weight due to water must be lost before signs of dehydration are noticeable in a horse?

0.06

161

What is physitis?

Thickened growth cartilage and callus formation causing visible swelling at the growth plate

162

What 3 feeding procedures can be used to minimize the hay waste?

Feed only as much as the horse will consume with little or no waste and to meet it's dietary needs; use feeders that have solid sides and bottoms; feed each horse separate from others

163

How is a feed mash created?

By adding water to a complete pelleted feed, alfalfa pellets, meal or bran

164

What is the proven effective treatment for locoweed poisoning?

There is no proven treatment

165

Name 3 types of grass seed you would be likely to use if you were going to seed a pasture in Illinois.

Smooth Brome Grass, Buffalo Grass, Bluestem, Grama, Tall Fescue

166

What is the poison contained in oak and in what part of the tree is it found in higher amounts?

Tannic acid. New leaves & acorns (mature leaves & bark contain lower amounts)

167

Other than death, what is an effect of excessive nonprotein nitrogen intake?

incoordination, head pressing, convulsions, comatose state, recumbent state

168

What is a characteristic to Horse Chestnut and Buckeye for identification?

Spiny or smooth fruit capsules containing 1-3 shiny brown nuts when ripe

169

Name 3 ways a horse can get zinc toxicosis.

air pollution from zinc smelters or mines, brass foundries. galvalized iron manufacturing plants, top dressing of pastures, grain mixing errors, and zinc in water

170

In the past, what vitamin was referred to as vitamin Fand aneurine?

thiamin (B1)

171

Mold produces what type of poisoning?

Mycotoxins

172

What is the average rate of water consumption in relation to body weight?

0.8 gallon per 100 lbs body weight per day

173

What is a sudden variation that is later passed on through inheritance and results from changes in a gene or genes?

Mutation

174

What is the scientific name for a mature sex cell?

Gamete

175

In what three joints are angular limb deformities the most common?

Knee, hock, and fetlocks

176

What effect does a teratogenic plant have?

Producing physical defects in the developing fetus.

177

What happens to the bone minerals when a horse had "Big Head disease from a calcium deficiency?

bone minerals are replaced by fibrous tissue, which increases the size of the bone

178

Which major equine disease is very frequent among stabled or paddocked horses, but is uncommon in horses on pasture?

Colic

179

Name an effect of excessive protein in the diet.

Increased urine volume, increased heat production

180

Why shouldn't you put salt in your horse's water after they have been sweating excessively?

it will decrease water consumption

181

For what three reasons should grain or grain mixes be fed?

When necessary to provide the nutrients needed but not provided in adequate amounts by the forage consumed; When good quality forages are not readily available or are more expensive than feeding grain; When desired for other reasons such as a treat, training or for ease in catching the horse

182

Why can it be difficult to identify poisoning by PA (Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid) containing plants?

The effects of PA are cumulative; symptoms of liver disease & photosensitization may not appear for months after the animals have eaten toxic quantities of PA containing plants. Identification of suspected plants is difficult since plants will often not be present in the pasture or hay when clinical signs are evident.

183

What is a characteristic smell associated with poisoning of sagebrush and where may it be found in regards to your horse?

Sage smell noticeable on the breath and in feces

184

Name four factors leaving to developmental orthopedic diseases.

rapid growth, genetic predisposition, trauma, nutritional problems

185

The risk and occurrence of colic in horses not on pasture can be decreases through what 3 feeding techniques?

Having forage available for the horse to eat to satiation; feeding frequent, small meals at regular and even intervals; feeding as little grain as necessary

186

What are 3 of the problems that occur when the growth plates are affected by a calcium deficiency and excess phosphorus?

a insidious shifting leg lameness, joint tenderness. Severely affected horses can have a gait similar to a hopping rabbit, reluctance to move, horse may collapse suddenly when ridden, reluctance to move

187

What is the name of the type of activity that can last for several minutes, requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy production and includes most major Standardbred and Thoroughbred racing?

middle distance activity

188

Forage and grain should be fed at the same time for what reason?

Forage consumed with grain decreases the amount of the grain's starch digested in the small intestine and, therefore, increases the amount that reaches the cecum.

189

Why does moldy sweet clover cause anemia?

It contains (Dicourmarol) an anticoagulant

190

Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium are the 3 most common genera responsible for which type of poisoning?

Mycotoxicosis

191

What 2 problems are caused by a deficiency in manganese?

growth and reproduction functions

192

What percentage of moisture must a feed have in order to meet the water requirements of an idle horse in a moderate environment?

40% or more

193

What type of damage do "mechanically injurious plants" cause and how do they cause these injuries?

Oral lesions, skin trauma or eye injury and they contain bristles, awns or burrs

194

High in forages and low in cereal grains, what nutritional element is utilized by bacterial fermentation in cecum and the large intestine?

fiber

195

What is the function of copper in bone development?

stabilize bone collagen and elastin synthesis

196

What is the most frequent limiting amino acid in growing horses?

Lysine

197

The mineral cobalt's only known function is as an integral part of which vitamin?

Vitamin B12

198

Which type of grass can cause 'tremors' or 'staggers' in cattle and sheep, but not in horses?

Bermuda grasses

199

Nightshade is a large family of plants that in large amounts results in death. What 2 common garden plants are in the nightshade family?

Tomato and Potato

200

Which type of grass is nutritious and has good tolerance to hot weather and drought and will withstand a lot of trampling and heavy grazing, but is less desirable than other grasses because it is less palatable than most other types of grass?

Tall fescue

201

Besides water, name 3 minerals that are also lost when a horse sweats?

sodium, chloride, potassium, lesser amounts of calcium, magnesium

202

What may happen to foals whose dam consumed quantities if wooly loco in early gestation?

They may have various limb deformities (or they may be aborted)

203

Give 3 reasons why forages should be at least half of the weight of the dietary ration.

it will decrease laminitis, gastrointestinal distribances (colic or diarrhea), and behavior problems in stabled horses

204

For older horses whose teeth are sufficiently bad, what may be done to extruded feeds and dehydrated
alfalfa pellets?

Soak in enough water to make a thick slurry and may add fat or oil

205

Where is the majority of the sulfur (4%) located in the horse's body?

hair and hoof

206

Why shouldn't analgesics be used on horses with angular limb deformity?

They decrease the pain, therefore increasing physical activity and potentially worsening the condition

207

How does the typical water intake of a full sized horse compare to that of a donkey?

A donkey will typically consume more water relative to their body weight than a horse.

208

Together selenium and vitamin E function to protect what body tissues from oxidation-induced damage?

cell membranes, enzymes, other intracellular substances

209

How have poisonous plants indirectly added to the cost of having/keeping horses?

necessity of fencing, herbicides, mowing and reseeding of pastures where undesirable plants predominate.

210

What 4 factors can alter the amount of toxin in plants?

1- drought 2- excessive moisture 3- fertilization 4- soil mineral imbalances 5- use of herbicides

211

What is often a cause of the older horse losing weight when kept in a group and how can you correct it?

They are driven away from feed by younder more dominant horses, feed them by themselves or provide a sufficient number of feeders in a large circle.

212

Name 6 heavy metal minerals.

lead, nickel, mercury, arsenic, aluminum and cadmium

213

When do the energy needs of a pregnant mare increase the most?

The last 3 months or third trimester of gestation

214

What 3 types of abnormal eating behaviors could be indicative of dental problems?

reluctance to eat, decrease in feed intake, or head tilting when eating

215

What is the toxin contained in the Castor Oil Plant and similar toxins are found in what 2 other sources?

Ricin. Rosary Peas & Black Locust

216

What is the major effect on the horse from aflatoxin poisoning?

liver damage

217

What is one standard calorie?

The amount of heat produced by oxidation that raises the temperature of one gram of water 1°C

218

What may be added to a horse's diet during cold weather if good body condition cannot be maintained with forage alone?

Grain (any cereal grain)

219

What causes the horse to lather up when they sweat?

horse's sweat contains proteins that have detergent like properties that help disperse sweat droplets to help with evaporation

220

What toxin is present in sorghums such as Johnson grass & Sudan grass?

Cyanide

221

What does total alkalinity mean in reference to water quality?

The sum of the concentrations of alkali metals

222

Why is it important to always have water and salt available to a horse?

they cannot store then. Any excess is excreted in urine

223

What are 2 signs of fluorosis in young horses?

delayed eruption of permanent teeth, oblige eruption, incomplete or defective teeth development

224

What 2 horse events are considered in all 3 of the athletic performance activities such as Endurance, Middle Distance and Sprint?

polo and cutting horse competitions

225

What is the single most reliable indication of water quality?

The amount of Total Dissolved Solids or TDS

226

Thiamin added to feed is reported to help with what 3 problems in the horse?

decreases anxiety, increases appetite, prevents tying up

227

When on pasture, a horse will eat, trample or damage forage that is equivalent to how many pounds of hay per month?

1000 pounds